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USMLE Step 1 clues 2- 800 slides 



USMLE Step 1 clues 2- 800 slides

 

 
 
Tags:  mesothelioma treatments  clues  step 1 
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Slide 1: Pass Program Clues “You ain’t told me squat till you tell me the CLUE!!!”
Slide 2: What are the 5 bacteria causing Heart Block? • Lyme Disease • Salmonella typhii (typhoid) • Chagas Disease (Whipple’s) • Legionella • Diptheria • Lets Stop Doing Long Contractions
Slide 3: What bacteria cause Reiter’s Syndrome? • Shigella • IBD – Crohn’s • Chlamydia • Yersina • Reiter & Crohn Saw Yersina and got Chlamyia
Slide 4: What are the Low Complement bugs causing Cryoglobuniemia? • Influenzae • Adenovirus • Mycoplasma • Hepatitis C • EBV • I AM HE
Slide 5: What are the drugs induced SLE? • • • • • • Hydralazine INH Phenytoin Procainamide Penicillamine Ethosuximide • H I PPPE
Slide 6: What are the drugs that Blast the BM? • AZT • Benzene • Chloramphenicol • Vinblastine • Vinblastine Anilate Bone Cells
Slide 7: What are the Comma Shaped bugs? • Vibrio • Campylobacter • Listeria • H. pylori • Campylobacter Has Very Long Comma Genes
Slide 8: What is the cresent shaped protozoa? • Giardia lamblia
Slide 9: What bacteria looks like Chinese letters? • Corynebacter
Slide 10: What are the TB Rx? • Rifampin • Pyrazinamide • INH • Ethambutanol • Streptomycin •RESPI
Slide 11: What are the 6 Low Complement assocs. with Nephrotic Syndrome? • Serum Sickness • PSGN • SLE • SBE • Cryoglobinemia • MPGN II
Slide 12: What drugs Induce p450? • BAG 4 CPR QTS • Barbiturates • Car Grabs Queens Tets to • Alcohol Rev Up • Griseofulvin • Alcoholic doing drugs and stinking up car • Carbamazapine • Rifampin • Quinidine • Tetracycline • Sulfa drugs
Slide 13: What drugs Inhibit p450? • I Do SMACK Quinolones • • • • • • • • INH Dapsone Spirolactones Macrolides Amiodarone Cimetidine Ketoconazole Quinilones
Slide 14: What drugs are P450 Dependent? • • • • • Warfarin Estrogen Phenytoin Theophylline Digoxin • Theo came from war & dig inside WDEPT taking Estrogen & now is Phenytoin
Slide 15: What disease is a Neutophil Deficiency? • CGD
Slide 16: What is another name for CGD? • Chronic Granulomatous disease • NADPH Oxidase deficiency
Slide 17: What are the Side effects of Statins? • Myositis • Hepatitis • Increased liver enzymes
Slide 18: What are the painful genital Lesions? • Chancroid • Herpes • Lymphogranuloma inguinale
Slide 19: What is the painful chancroid lesion due to? • Hemophilus ducreyi
Slide 20: What are the 4 hormones with disulfide bonds? • Prolactin • Insulin • Inhibin • GH • I PIG on BONDS
Slide 21: What are the Hookworms? • • • • • • Necatur americanis Enterobius vermicularis Ankylostoma duodenale Trichuris trichurium Ascaris lumbercoides Strongyloides • Hooks AS NEAT
Slide 22: What are the X-Linked enzyme Deficiencies? • • • • • • • G6-PD CGD Pyruvate dehydrogenase Def. Fabry’s Hunter’s Lesch-nyhan Lesch-Nyhan Hunter Puts Fabrys on G6 Clothes
Slide 23: What diseases do we screen for at birth? • • • • • Please Check Before Going Home • PKU • CAH(Congential • • • Adrenal Hyperplasia) Biotinidase Galactosemia Hypothyroidism
Slide 24: HLA-Antigens • HLA-DR2= Narcolepsy, Allergy, Goodpasture’s, • • • • • MS HLA-DR3= DM, Chronic Active Hepatitis, Sjogren’s, SLE, Celiac Sprue HLA-DR3 & 4= IDDM(Type I) HLA-DR4= Rheumatoid Arthritis, Pemphigus Vulgaris HLA-DR5= JRA, Pernicious Anemia HLA-DR7= Nephrotic Syndrome(Steroid induced)
Slide 25: HLA-Antigens • HLA-DR 3 & B8=Celiac Disease • HLA-A3= Hemochromatosis(chromo. 6, point • • • • mut.-cysteine>tyrosine) HLA-B8=MG HLA-B13= Psoriasis HLA-B27= Psoriais(only if w/arthritis) Ankylosing Spondylitis, IBD, Reiter’s, Postgonococcal Arthritis HLA-BW 47= 21 alpha Hydroxylas def.(Vit.D)
Slide 26: What are the actions of Steroids? • Kills helper T-cells & eosinophils • Inhibits Macrophage migration • Inhibits Mast cell degranulation • Inhibits Phospholipase A • Stimulates protein synthesis • Stablizes endothelium
Slide 27: What are the causes of Monocytosis? • Salmonella (typhoid) • TB • EBV • Listeria • Syphillis
Slide 28: E. Coli is the most common cause of what? • UTI • Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis • Abdominal abscess • Cholecystitis • Ascending cholangitis • Appendicitis
Slide 29: What are the one dose treatments for Gonorrhea? • Ceftriaxone • Cefixime • Cefoxine • Ciprofloxin • Oflaxacin • Gatifolxacin
Slide 30: What is the one dose treatment for Chlamydia? • Azithromycin
Slide 31: What are the “Big Mama” anaerobes? • Strep bovis • Clostridium melanogosepticus • Bacteriodes fragilis
Slide 32: What are the “Big Mama” Rx? • Clindamycin • Metranidazole • Cefoxitin
Slide 33: What “big mama” bugs are associated with colon cancer? • Strep. Bovis • Clostridium melanogosepticus
Slide 34: What do you see in the serum with low volume state? • K+? • Decreases • Na+? • Decreases • Cl-? • Decreases • pH? • Increases • BP? • Increases
Slide 35: What are psammoma bodies? • Calcified CA’s
Slide 36: In what diseases are Psammoa Bodies present? • Papillary carcinoma of the Thyroid • Serous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary • Meningioma • Mesothelioma
Slide 37: What are the Urease (+) Bacteria? • Proteus • Pseudomonas • Ureaplasma urealyticum • Nocardia species • Cryptococcus neoformans • H. pylori
Slide 38: What types of stones are formed from Proteus? • Struvite (90%)
Slide 39: What type of motility do Proteus have? • swarming
Slide 40: What are 5 indications of Surgery? • Intractable pain • Hemorrhage (massive) • Obstruction (from scarring) • Perforation
Slide 41: What drugs cause Cardiac Fibrosis? • Adriamycin (Doxyrubicin) • Phen-fen
Slide 42: What drug is used to tx cardiac fibrosis? • Dozaroxsin
Slide 43: What is the MCC of any ….penia? • #1 = Virus • #2 = Drugs
Slide 44: What is seen in the Salmonella Triad? • High Fever • Rose spots (rash) • Intestinal fire
Slide 45: What drugs cause Myositis? • Rifampin • INH • Predinsone • Statins
Slide 46: What are the 7 Gram -encapsulated bacteria? • • • • • • • Some Strange Killers Have Pretty Nice Capsules • • • • • • • Salmonella Strep. Pneumo (gr+) Klebsiella H. influenza Pseudomonas Neisseria Cryptococcus
Slide 47: What is the Jones Criteria for Rheumatic Fever? • SubQ nodules • Polyarthritis • Erythema marginatum • Carditis • Chorea
Slide 48: What are the causes of Eosinophilla? • Neoplasms • Allergies/Asthma • Addison’s Dz • Collagen Vascular Dz • Parasites
Slide 49: What are the Risk Factors for Liver CA? • • • • • • • • • • Hep B,C,D Aflatoxin Vinyl chloride Ethanol Carbon Tetrachloride Anyline Dyes Smoking Hemochromatosis Benzene Schistomiasis
Slide 50: What are the 9 Live Vaccines? • • • • • • • • • Measles Mumps Rubella Oral Polio (sabin) Rotavirus Small pox BCG Yellow fever Varicella
Slide 51: What are the Killed Vaccines? • SIR Hep A • • • • Salk (polio) Influenza Rubella Hepatitis A
Slide 52: What are the IgA Nephropathies? • Henoch-Schoenlein P. (HSP) • Alport’s • Berger’s
Slide 53: What are the Drugs that cause Autoimmune hemolytic anemia? • • • • • • • PCN α-methyldopa Cephalosporins Sulfa PTU Anti-malarials Dapsone
Slide 54: What are the drugs that cause Autoimmune thrombocytopenia? • ASA • Heparin • Quinidine
Slide 55: What are the enzymes that show after an MI? • Troponin I • CKMB • LDH
Slide 56: What is the first MI enzyme to appear? • • • • Troponin I Appears Peaks Gone • • • 2 hrs 2 days 7 days
Slide 57: What is the 2 MI enzyme to appear? nd • • • • CK-MB Appears Peaks Gone • • • 6 hrs 12 hrs 24 hrs
Slide 58: What is the 3 MI enzyme to appear? rd • • • • LDH Appears Peaks Gone • • • 1 day 2 days 3 days
Slide 59: What bacteria have Silver Stains? • Legionella • Pneumocysitis carinii • H. pylori • Bartonella henseslae (lymph node) • Candida (yeast)
Slide 60: What are the sulfa containing drugs? • Sulfonamides • Sulfonylurea • Celebrex
Slide 61: What is another name for celebrex? • Celecoxib
Slide 62: What type of inhibitor is Celebrex? • COX 2 specific
Slide 63: What COX-2 specific drug can you give to a pt with sulfa allergy? • Vioxx (Rofecoxib)
Slide 64: What drugs inhibit dihydrofolate reductase? • Pyremethamin/Sulfadiazine • Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole
Slide 65: What drugs cause Pulmonary Fibrosis? • Bleomycin • Bulsufan • Amiodarone • Tocainide
Slide 66: What are the macrophage deficiency diseases? • Chediak-Higashi • NADPH-oxidase deficiency
Slide 67: What are the SE of Loops and Thiazides? • Hyperglycemia • Hyperuricemia • Hypovolemia • Hypokalemia
Slide 68: What are the SE of Loop diuretics? • OH DANG • • • • • • Ototoxicity Hypokalemia Dehydration Allergy Nephritis (interstitial) Gout
Slide 69: What are the only 3 Pansystolic Murmurs and when are they heard? • MR • TR • VSD • Decrease on • • inspiration (^exp) Increase on inspiration Decrease on inspiration (^exp)
Slide 70: Macrophages in various organs • • • • • • • • • Brain Lung Liver Spleen Kidney Lymph nodes Skin Bone CT • • • • • • • • • • • Mircoglia Type I pneumocyte Kupffer cell RES Mesangial Dendritic Langerhans Osteoclasts Histiocytes or Giant cells or Epithelioid cells
Slide 71: What are the 7 Rashes of the Palms & Soles? • TSS • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever • Coxsackie A (Hand/Foot & mouth dz) • Kawasaki • Syphillis • Scarlet Fever • Staph Scalded Skin Syndrome
Slide 72: What is seen in every restrictive lung dz and low volume state? • Tachypnea • Decrease pCO2 • Decrease pO2 • Increase pH
Slide 73: What are the different 2nd messenger systems? • cAMP • cGMP • IP3/DAG • Ca:Calmodulin • Ca+ • Tyrosine kinase • NO
Slide 74: What is the clue for cAMP? • It is the 90% • Sympathetic • CRH (cortisol) • Catabolic
Slide 75: What is the clue for cGMP? • Parasympathetic • Anabolic
Slide 76: What are the clues for IP3/DAG? • Neurotransmitter • GHRH • All hypothalamic hormones xc cortisol • Used by what and for what? • Smooth muscle for contraction
Slide 77: What is the clue for Ca:Calmodulin? • Used by smooth muscle for contraction by distention
Slide 78: What is the clue for Ca+? • Used by Gastrin only
Slide 79: What is the clue for Tyrosine Kinase? • Used by Insulins • Used by ALL growth factors
Slide 80: What is the clue for NO? • Nitrates • Viagra • ANP • LPS
Slide 81: What are the T & B cell deficiencies? • WAS • SCID • CVID • HIV • HTLV-1
Slide 82: What are the CLUES for WAS? • Thrombocytopenia • IL-4 • Infection • Eczema • Decrease IgM • IgE???
Slide 83: What are the CLUES for SCID? • Framshift/Nonsense mutation • Adenosine deaminase deficiency • T-cell>B-cell • Bacterial infections • Fungal infections
Slide 84: What are the CLUES for CVID? • Late onset • Frameshift/Missense mutation • Tyrosine Kinase deficiency
Slide 85: What are the CLUES for HIV & HTLV-1? • T-cell>B-cell • CD4 rich • Brain • Testicles • Cervix • Blood vessels
Slide 86: What are the inhibitors of Complex 1 of the ETC? • Amytal • Rotenone
Slide 87: What are the inhibitors of Complex 2 of the ETC? • Malonate
Slide 88: What are the inhibitors of Complex 3 of the ETC? • Antimycin D
Slide 89: What are the inhibitors of Complex 4 of the ETC? • CN• CO • Chloramphenicol
Slide 90: What are the inhibitors of Complex 5 of the ETC? • Oligomycin
Slide 91: What are the ETC chemical uncouplers? • DNP • Free Fatty acids • Aspirin
Slide 92: What type of uncoupler is Aspirin? • Physical uncoupler
Slide 93: What are the 4 sources of Renal Acid? • Plasma • Urea cycle • Collecting ducts • Glutaminase
Slide 94: What is the one dose tx for Hemophilus ducreyi? • Azithromycin 1 gram po • Ceftriazone 250 mg im
Slide 95: What is the one dose tx for Chlaymdia? • Azithromycin 1 gram po
Slide 96: What is the one dose tx for Candidiasis? • Ketoconazole 150mg
Slide 97: What is the one dose tx for Vaginal Candidiasis? • Difluccan 1 pill
Slide 98: What is the one dose tx for Trichomonas? • Metronidazole 2 grams
Slide 99: What is the one dose tx for Gardnerella? • Metronidazole 2 grams
Slide 100: What are the 3 cephalosporins & doses used as one dose treatments for Gonorrhea? • Ceftriaxone 250 mg im • Cefixime 400 mg po • Cefoxitin 400 mg po
Slide 101: What are the 3 Quinolones & doses used as one dose treatments for Gonorrhea? • Ciprofloxacin 500 mg po • Ofloxacin 400 mg po • Gatifloxacin 400 mg im
Slide 102: What are the 4 enzymes needed to break down glycogen? • Phosphorylase (Pi) • Debranching enzyme • Alpha-1,6 –Glucosidase • Phosphatase
Slide 103: What are the 2 enzymes needed to make glycogen? • Glycogen synthase • Branching enzyme
Slide 104: What are the branching enzymes? • Glycogen alpha-1,4 glycosyl transferase • Glycogen alpha-1,6 glycosyl transferase
Slide 105: What is the rate limiting enzyme in the break down of glycogen? • Phosphorylase (Pi)
Slide 106: What values do you see in obstructive pulmonary dz? • pO2? Normal • pCO2? Normal or increased • pH? Decreased
Slide 107: What values do you see in restrictive pulmonary dz? • pO2? Decreased • pCO2? Decreased • pH? Increased
Slide 108: What type of acidosis do you see with obstructive pulmonary dz? • Respiratory acidosis
Slide 109: What are the Lysosomal Storage Disease & what is the deficiency? • • • • • • • • Fabry’s Krabbe’s Gaucher’s Niemann – Pick Tay-Sachs Metachromatic leukodystrophy Hurler’s Hunter’s • • • • • • • • α – galactosidase Galactosylceramide β – glucocerebrosidase Sphingomyelinase Hexosaminidase Arylsulfatase α – L – iduronidase Iduronidase sulfatase
Slide 110: What dz’s are associated with HLA B27? • Psoriasis • Ankylosing spondylitis • IBD (Ulcerative colitis) • Reiter’s Syndrome
Slide 111: What HLA is Psorisis w/RA associated with? • HLA-13
Slide 112: What are the Glycogen Storage Diseases & the deficiency? • Von Gierke’s • Pompe’s • Cori’s • McArdle’s • Glucose – 6 – phosphate • α – 1 – 4 glucosidase • Debranching enzyme • Glycogen phosphorylase
Slide 113: What are 6 places of the TCA cycle where amino acids feed in/out? • • • • • • • • • • • Pyruvate? Glycine Alanine Serine Acetyl CoA ? Phenylalanine Isoleucine Threonine Tryptophan Lysine Leucine
Slide 114: What are 6 places of the TCA cycle where amino acids feed in/out? • • • • • • • Alpha-KG ? Glutamate Glutamine Succinyl CoA? Phenylalanine Tryptophan Tyrosine
Slide 115: What are 6 places of the TCA cycle where amino acids feed in/out? • Fumerate ? • Proline • Oxaloacetate? • Aspartate • Asparigine
Slide 116: What are the 4 steps of Boxidation? • Oxidation – 7 NADH – 21 ATP • Hydration • Oxidation - 7FADH – 14 ATP • Thiolysis – 8 AcCoA – 96ATP – 2 (to bring it in) 131 ATP
Slide 117: What are the blood gases in neuromuscular disease (= restrictive blood gases)? • pO2? • • • • • Decreased pCO2? Decreased PCWP? Decreased (b/c it’s a pressure problem) Respiratory Rate? Increased pH? Increased SZ? Increased
Slide 118: What are 5 Hormones produced by small cell (oat cell) lung CA? • ACTH • ADH • PTH • TSH • ANP
Slide 119: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-smith • Anti cardiolipin • Anti-ds DNA • SLE
Slide 120: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti – histone? • Drug induced SLE
Slide 121: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-topoisomerase? • PSS (Progressive Systemic Sclerosis)
Slide 122: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti TSH receptors? • Graves
Slide 123: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-centromere? • CREST
Slide 124: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-GBM? • Goodpasture’s
Slide 125: What does Goodpastures have antibody to? • Type IV collagen
Slide 126: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-mitochondria? • Primary biliary cirrhosis
Slide 127: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-hair follicle? • Alopecia areata
Slide 128: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-IgG? • Rheumatoid arthritis
Slide 129: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-myelin receptors? • MS
Slide 130: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-gliaden? • Anti-gluten? • Celiac sprue
Slide 131: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-islet cell receptor? • DM Type I
Slide 132: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-melanocyte? • Viteligo
Slide 133: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-ACh receptor? • MG
Slide 134: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-ribonuclear protein? • Mixed Connective Tissue dz (MCTD)
Slide 135: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-parietal cell receptor? • Pernicious anemia
Slide 136: What does Pernicious Anemia have antibody to? • Intrinsic factor
Slide 137: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-epidermal anchoring protein receptors? • Pemphigus vulgaris
Slide 138: What does Pemphigus vulgaris have antibody to? • Intercelluar junctions of epidermal cells
Slide 139: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-epidermal basement membrane protein? • Bullous pemphigoid
Slide 140: What do you see with bullous pemphigoid? • IgG sub-epidermal blisters • Oral blisters
Slide 141: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-platelet? • ITP
Slide 142: What does ITP have antibody to? • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
Slide 143: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-thyroglobulin? • Anti-microsomal? • Hashimoto’s
Slide 144: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-smooth muscle? • Anti-scl-70? • Scleroderma
Slide 145: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-rho (SS-A)? • Anti-la? • Sjogren’s
Slide 146: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • Anti-proteinase? • C-ANCA? • Wegener’s
Slide 147: What Autoimmune Disease has the following Autoimmune Antibodies? • P-ANCA? • Polyarteritis nodosa
Slide 148: What antigen & immunoglobulin is Polyarteritis nodosa associated with? • Hepatitis B antigen • IgM
Slide 149: What are the viruses that directly cause CA and which CA do they cause? • Papilloma virus? • • • Cervical CA EBV? Burkitts Nasopharyngeal CA HepB & C? Liver CA HIV? Kaposi’s Sarcoma
Slide 150: What are the 7 Nephrotic Patterns seen with every Vasculitis? • Clot in front of renal artery? • Clot off whole renal artery? • Inflamed glomeruli? • Clot in papilla? Glumerulo nephritis Papillary necrosis Renal failure Renal artery stenosis • Clot off medulla? • Clot off pieces of nephron? • Clot off lots of nephrons? Rapidly Progressive GN Focal segmental GN (HIV, drug use association) Interstitial nephritis

   
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