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Published:  October 03, 2010
 
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Slide 1: Increasing Direct Marketing for Fruit Farmers by Connecting Producer to Producer through Research and Development of a Value-Added Product Final Report Federal –State Marketing Improvement Program Grant Agreement No. 12-25-G-0341 Submitted to Jim Anderson, Program Director Missouri Department of Agriculture Kimberly Rey, Principal Investigator Southwest Missouri State University State Fruit Experiment Station 9740 Red Spring Road Mountain Grove, MO 65711-2999 INTRODUCTION Missouri fruit growers rely on the fresh market to sell their product. Currently growers are struggling to remain competitive in that market. If the fresh market is oversupplied, most growers have no alternative market for the surplus. Some growers lose 30 percent of their crop due to surplus and damage. As a result, a significant portion of the harvested crop is lost with no economic benefit to the grower. The purpose of this proposal was to connect fruit growers who have surplus fruit with wineries interested in developing a new value-added product, fruit brandy. The proposed study was a continuation of the research project under the same name funded by USDA in 2000-2001. This proposal focused on assisting and educating the growers and wineries interested in adopting a market connection between fruit producer and brandy producer as a result of the findings from the first year of research. This was a crucial step in solidifying the effort of the first year to successfully complete the connection between the fruit and wine industries. Researchers made adjustments in methods based on the outcome of the evaluation of the first year’s products, and continue perfecting the new products developed. The benefits of this project are that the state fruit growers will increase their sustainability by having an alternative market for their crops (damaged or undamaged), and the grape and wine industry will add new products to their product mix. The state of Missouri will benefit from increased revenues received from the valueadded products produced within the state. 1
Slide 2: Goal 1: The State of Missouri will have implemented a program that connects producer to producer by connecting fruit growers with surplus fruit to wineries interested in making fruit brandy. Objective 1: Educate the fruit and wine industries about how to start up and operate a distillery for the commercial production of fruit brandy products. Activities completed: (a.) Give presentations that help growers and vintners learn first hand about what is involved in the operations of a distillery. 1) Growers and vintners visit the distillery on a regular basis for demonstrations and discussions about the process of distillery operation. (b.) Continue to advise growers and vintners through the process of making producer-to-producer market connections. 1) One Missouri winery has established a distillery, and through advisement has contracted with growers here in the state to purchase surplus fruit for the purpose of making brandy on a commercial scale. Other Missouri wineries are negotiating the purchase of distilleries and continually call the State Fruit Experiment Station for advisement services. Goal 2: The State of Missouri will have developed a new value-added product, fruit brandy, using surplus fruit from Missouri fruit farmers. Objective 1: Assess successful distillery operations at the research and commercial level, and apply the information gained to this project. Activities completed: (a.) Visit distilleries in other states and countries to talk with experts about specific techniques necessary for the production and evaluation of quality brandy products. 1) Attendance to the 17th Annual Midwest Grape and Wine conference symposium on fortification and port production allowed discussions with Tim Spence, expert in fortification for 30 plus years. The techniques discussed and information attained will be assessed so that the knowledge gained can be applied to the fruit port production research. 2
Slide 3: 2) Lee Lutes, owner of Black Star Farms, visited the Station to evaluate 2001 Station brandies and train Kimberly Rey, SMSU Distiller, in fruit-in-the-bottle technique for specialty brandies. 3) Alexander Plank, German Distillation Engineer and owner of German Distillation Company: Christian Carl Distillery Technology, visited the Station to evaluate 2001 and 2002 Station brandies as well as continue the education and training of Kimberly Rey, SMSU Distiller. 4) Volker Dietrich, German Distillation Engineer and owner of the German Distillation Company: Arnold Holstein, visited the Station to evaluate 2001 and 2002 Station brandies and continue the education and training of Kimberly Rey, SMSU Distiller. Objective 2: Produce fruit brandy, which can then be used to make other fruit products such as fruit ports and fruit infusions. Activities completed: (a.) Purchase test equipment required to produce and evaluate fruit brandy. (b.) Make adjustments in methods based on researcher and industry recommendations from year one. A complete report is submitted by Kimberly Rey in ATTACHMENT A Objective 3: Publish a technical report, and mail to the fruit growers and vintners of Missouri. Activity completed 3
Slide 4: ATTACHMENT A Goal 2 Final Report 4
Slide 5: INTRODUCTION The purpose of this portion of the project was to continue to improve the method used to produce quality distillates of fruit brandy, and determine which varieties of fruit showed the most promise as a fruit brandy. Two types of distillates were studied, distillates that produce high quality sipping brandies and tail-cut distillates that were redistilled. METHODS AND MATERIALS Fruits grown at the State Fruit Experiment station were used for this project. Each variety of fruit was mashed and fermented to dryness. No microbial antiseptics such as sulfur dioxide were added to the mash throughout or following fermentation. Lalvin V1116 yeast, diammonium phosphate and Fermaid nutrients, and hemicellulose enzymes were added to aid fermentation. Analysis for percent titratable acidity, pH, and sugar content as ºBrix was conducted prefermentation, and percent ethanol content was conducted post-fermentation. Only one variety of peaches, Red Haven, was available for fermentation this season. Four varieties of apples, Jonathon, Gayla, Red Delicious, and Ozark Gold were fermented as varietal batches. Three batches of mixed apples were fermented. Since fruit quality has an effect on the fermentation, which in-turn affects the distillates produced, fruit quality was documented 1. The fruit quality determination was based on the presence of bruises, molds, fungi, and the extent of insect damage in pits or cores. A 3-plate 120 L column still was used for all distillations. A schematic diagram of a 120 L Christian-Carl still is shown in Figure 1. The operation of a steam jacket still is as follows. Figure 1. Schematic diagram of a Christian-Carl 120 L still 2. The still is operated by a steam jacket, which heats the mash to boiling under normal pressure conditions. Cooling water is passed through the total condenser and into the columndephlegmater (partial condenser). The cooling water is kept at 23 ºC at the top of the condenser 5
Slide 6: and the flow of water into the column-dephlegmator is regulated. The purpose of the columndephlegmator is to partially condense the distillate vapor, returning a portion of it as countercurrent distillate to be re-distilled. The three plates in the column are copper sieves, which the distillate vapors can pass through as they rise through the column. The countercurrent distillate drains back down and sits on the next lower plate to be re-distilled therefore increasing the efficiency of separation of different components. This process is called reflux and rectification 1, 2, 3. The water in the column-dephlegmator will remain at 23 ºC until the distillate vapor of the mash increases the temperature of the water. Alcohols with low boiling points vaporize at lower temperatures, and are referred to as the head cut of the distillate. As the temperature of the mash increases alcohols with higher boiling points begin to vaporize and are referred to as the heart cut of the distillate. Alcohols that boil at temperatures higher than approximately 88 ºC are considered the tail cut of the distillate 2. Table 1 shows the boiling points of the components commonly found in fruit distillate 3, 4. The increase in the temperature of the vapor raises the temperature of the dephlegmator as the vapors come in contact with it. As the distillate vapors rise up through the column the vapors eventually move out of the top column and into the total condenser. The distillate vapor is then condensed and is collected as a liquid from the bottom of the total condenser 1, 2. Components of distillates Acetaldehyde Acetone Ethyl formate Ethyl acetate Methanol Ethanol n-propanol isopentyl alcohol (isoamyl alcohol) Benzaldehyde Boiling Points ºC at 760 mmHg 21 56.5 53-54 77 64.7 78.5 97.2 130.5 179 Table 1. Components most commonly found in fruit distillates and their boiling points at normal pressure 4. The distillation for this project involved 120 L of mash pumped into the pot of the still. Cooling water was circulated through the column-dephlegmator and the total condenser. Pressure on the steam jacket was determined by the mash being distilled. Most mashes required the pressure within the jacket to be kept at 0.5 bar until reflux began on the third plate. Once reflux began on the third plate the pressure was reduced to between 0.2 and 0.3 bar for the remainder of product collection. Re-distillation of tails required pressure less than 0.05 bar. The product was collected in three stages, head, heart, and tail using sensory analysis to determine the cuts. The distillate was collected as cuts of 500-1000 ml of head followed by collection of the heart until a noticeable change in aroma from fruity to musty or rancid was 6
Slide 7: detected. At the change in aroma the tail cut was collected until 15% alcohol was remained in the product. The tail was stored until it could be redistilled. The cuts were made based on sensory evaluation for the presence and then absence of acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate for the head cut, and the musty or rancid, off odors of higher alcohols for the tail cut. The distillates were evaluated by sensory analysis. This involved reduction of the spirits to a drinkable grade of 40% using distilled water. Distilled water was used so that the water had no influence on the aroma and flavor of the distillate 1. Sensory evaluation was then performed using aroma and flavor. This procedure was conducted at the time the distillates were collected and after a six-week aging period. The spirits were also evaluated by analytical separation of the components using a Hewlett Packard 6890 Gas Chromatography (GC) instrument with autosample injector and a Flame Ionization Detector (FID). This was done to verify the cuts of head, heart, and tail made using sensory during the distillation process. Eighty-five samples were collected from the distillation of five varieties of fruit and five batches of mixed fruit. The average value for each triplicate run was used to plot the trend of head, heart, and tail cut composition in relation to the sensory cut made at the time of distillation. A 30m Alltech ECWAX (polyethylene glycol) capillary column with an inner diameter of 0.25 mm was used for all measurements. The initial conditions for the chromatographic analysis were: column temperature at 40 ºC, injector port temperature of 240 ºC, and the detector temperature at 255 ºC. The temperature program used for the analysis was initially 40 ºC and ramped at 25 ºC/min until a temperature of 210 ºC was reached. The temperature was held at 210 ºC for 5 minutes. An injection of 0.5 µL was used with a split ratio on the column of 50:1. Each sample took 14.80 minutes to run. The samples were evaluated for their content of acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopentyl alcohol (isoamyl alcohol). RESULTS The separation of the head cut from the heart cut for all the varieties of peaches and apples was easily made by sensory as well as GC analysis. The disappearance of the aroma of ethyl acetate signified the cut at the time the distillates were collected. This also proved to be true using GC analysis by the disappearance of these compounds from the GC chromatogram. Ethyl acetate was present on the GC chromatogram in the head cut, but was undetectable by GC or sensory analysis in the heart or tail cut. Figure 2 shows an example of the full report for one injection of a sample. The report includes the chromatogram and all data relating to the sample. For simplicity purposes, only the chromatograms are used in Figures 3 and 4. The absence of ethyl acetate in the heart and tail cuts is shown in Figures 3 and 4. These cuts were made using sensory evaluation at the time the sample was collected. 7
Slide 8: Figure 2. Example of data report from GC analysis. 8
Slide 9: a. Peaks for the head cut. b. Peaks for the heart cut. c. Peaks for the tail cut. Figure 3a-c. GC chromatograms of the head, heart and tail cuts of Mixed Apples. 9
Slide 10: a. Peaks for the head cut. b. Peaks for the heart cut. c. Peaks for the tail cut. Figure 4a-c. GC chromatograms of head, heart and tail cuts of Red Delicious Apples. 10
Slide 11: The total volume of alcohol collected and quantity of each cut varied with every variety of fruit. The starting sugar content and the fermentation process affected the total volume collected for each batch 1, 2. A higher total volume of alcohol was collected when the sugar content was greater and fruit quality was good to fair. Table 2 shows the variety, fruit quality, and the pre and postfermentation data. Fruit Quality Fair/poor Fair/poor Good Good Poor Good Good Good Fair/poor Poor % Titratable Acidity 0.75 0.75 0.39 0.39 0.35 0.40 0.93 0.92 0.93 0.22 Starting % Ethanol 5.2 5.2 5.8 5.7 7.6 5.8 5.0 5.2 40 7.8 5.0 Date 8-26-02 8-29-02 9-11-02 9-12-02 9-13-02 9-13-02 9-18-02 9-19-02 10-1-02 10-7-02 10-8-02 Variety Red Haven Peaches Red Haven Peaches Gayla-Ozark Gold Apples Ozark Gold Apples Gayla Apples Ozark Gold Apples Mixed Apples Mixed Apples Re-distilled Apple tail Jonathon Apples Red Delicious Apples °Brix 11.5 12.3 12.4 12.4 14.2 12.2 11.2 11.2 14.9 12.8 pH 3.85 3.92 3.58 3.58 3.9 3.55 3.41 3.47 3.22 4.08 Table 2. Pre and post-fermentation data for all mash distilled. It was found that all distillates collected carried the distinctive aroma of the fruit from which they were made. However, some varieties showed more characteristics of the fruit than others. The lower and higher alcohol compounds such as ethyl acetate, methanol, isoamyl alcohol, and propanol with their pungent aromas can mask fruit character. This may be due in part to characteristics specific to a fruit variety, which causes greater production higher alcohols during fermentation, or could be caused by poor fruit quality and nutritional stress during fermentation. It was observed through GC analysis that the quality of fruit and conditions of fermentation appeared to have an affect on the quantity of methanol, propanol, and isoamyl alcohol content in the spirits produced. Figure 5 shows the definite increase in methanol content from the fair to poor quality Red Haven Peach fermentations. Figure 6 shows similar behavior with the Jonathon apples. It was noted that when two batches were distilled from the same mash, the second batch contained less of these pungent compounds. Figures 5 and 6 were produced from data in Table 3. 11
Slide 12: Figure 5. This series of charts show that in the single batch distillation of Red Haven Peaches component content, especially methanol, was higher. When distilled in two batches, the second batch carried a lower content of the same components. 12
Slide 13: Figure 6. This figure demonstrates that content of each component except isoamyl alcohol in Batch 2 has decreased when compared to batch 1. Also, the fruit aromas were found to be stronger by sensory analysis after a period of aging than they were at the time of collection. This is due to esterification that occurs during the aging process. Esters, fruity and aromatic aromas, are formed from a reaction of alcohol and acid producing water as a side product 1, 2. 13
Slide 14: Table 3. Gas Chromatography Analysis - average values of samples run in triplicate of Peach and Apple Varieties for specific components vial Acetone ethyl acetate methanol ethanol propanol Sample name # % % % % % RHP 8-26 hd RHP 8-26 hrt RHP 8-26 tl RHP 8-29 hd B1 RHP 8-29 hrt 1B1 RHP 8-29 hrt 2B1 RHP 8-29 hrt QB1 RHP 8-29 hrt 1B2 RHP 8-29 hrt 2B2 RHP 8-29 hrt QB2 RHP 8-29 tl B2 GA 9-17 hd GA 9-17 hrt GA 9-17 tl OGA 9-18 hd OGA 9-18 hrt OGA 9-18 tl GA 9-19 F5 hd GA 9-19 F5 hrt GA 9-19 F5 tl GA 9-19 F4 hd B1 GA 9-19 F4 hrt B1 GA 9-19 F4 hd B2 GA 9-19 F4 hrt B2 discarded OGA 9-20 hd B1 OGA 9-20 hrt B1 OGA 9-20 hd B2 OGA 9-20 hrt B2 OGA 9-20 tl B2 OGA 9-23 hd B1 OGA 9-23 hrt B1 OGA 9-23 tl B1 OGA 9-23 hd B2 Key to Table 3 OGA – Ozark Gold Apples GA – Gayla Apples RHP – Red Haven Peach JA – Jonathon Apples MA – Mixed Apples RDA – Red Delicious Apples RA – Redistilled Apple tails hd – head cut hrt – heart cut tl – tail cut B1 – Batch 1 B2 – Batch 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 1.3208 0.0000 0.0000 0.5930 0.0689 0.0000 0.0000 0.1427 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2907 0.0000 0.0000 0.4932 0.0000 0.0000 0.3786 0.0000 0.0000 0.1199 0.0000 0.1082 0.0000 0.1463 0.0000 0.2579 0.0000 0.0000 0.7991 0.0000 0.0000 0.4056 3.9887 2.4413 0.5276 3.3089 2.6322 1.5372 0.3593 1.3763 0.9409 0.4089 0.4210 1.0595 0.5983 0.0073 0.4399 0.1443 0.0000 0.9288 0.6390 0.0065 0.7352 0.3418 0.8779 0.0000 0.6399 0.2851 0.5008 0.3302 0.0000 0.8350 0.4038 0.0000 0.6768 153.9402 138.8861 26.5440 158.6797 155.4775 102.4348 30.8045 96.5018 73.1038 36.7589 32.5816 102.6390 70.0626 14.6449 110.3227 71.6514 18.5628 101.2485 79.5180 15.5212 85.5962 48.4812 99.0933 14.4571 110.1900 84.4907 96.5380 83.0862 15.6887 102.7094 79.5883 16.4217 93.4750 0.1616 0.4259 0.0000 0.2904 0.4257 0.3369 0.0000 0.2421 0.1823 0.0064 0.0019 0.0046 0.0000 0.0000 0.0014 0.0000 0.0000 0.0154 0.0132 0.0000 0.0374 0.0000 0.0501 0.0000 0.0153 0.0352 0.0085 0.0253 0.0000 0.0031 0.0198 0.0000 0.0000 isoamyl alcohol % 0.1708 0.3098 0.0000 0.2223 0.2947 0.3492 0.1748 0.2857 0.2834 0.1815 0.1090 0.3516 0.3501 0.0000 0.3193 0.4144 0.0530 0.3644 0.4762 0.0000 0.4988 0.2764 0.4791 0.0000 0.3485 0.5570 0.3622 0.5379 0.0000 0.3255 0.5718 0.0000 0.3440 Q – Questionable F – Fermenter 14
Slide 15: Table 3 cont. Gas Chromatography Analysis - average values of samples run in triplicate of Peach and Apple Varieties for specific components vial acetone ethyl acetate methanol ethanol propanol isoamyl alcohol Sample name # % % % % % % OGA 9-23 hrt B2 OGA 9-23 tl B2 MA 9-26 hd B1 MA 9-26 hrt B1 MA 9-26 tl B1 MA 9-26 hd B2 MA 9-26 hrt B2 MA 9-26 tl B2 MA 9-30 hd B1 MA 9-30 hrt B1 discarded MA 9-30 hd B2 MA 9-30 hrt B2 MA 9-30 tl B2 RA 10-1 start F3 RA 10-1 start F4 RA 10-1 start F5 RA 10-1 start F6 RA 10-1 hd RA 10-1 hrt RA 10-1 tl OGA 10-2 hd B1 OGA 10-2 hrt B1 OGA 10-2 tl B1 OGA 10-2 hd B2 OGA 10-2 hrt B2 OGA 10-2 tl B2 RDA 10-16 F2 hd B1 RDA 10-16 F2 hrt B1 RDA 10-16 F2f tl B1 RDA 10-16 F2 hd B2 RDA 10-16 F2 hrt B2 RDA 10-16 F2 tl B2 RDA 10-16 F3 hd B1 RDA 10-16 F3 hrt B1 Key to Table 3 OGA – Ozark Gold Apples GA – Gayla Apples RHP – Red Haven Peach JA – Jonathon Apples MA – Mixed Apples RDA – Red Delicious Apples RA – Redistilled Apple tails hd – head cut hrt – heart cut tl – tail cut B1 – Batch 1 B2 – Batch 2 Q – Questionable F – Fermenter 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2738 0.0000 0.0000 0.4067 0.0000 0.0000 0.2850 0.0000 0.0788 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2862 0.0000 0.0000 0.0705 0.0000 0.0000 0.1607 0.0000 0.0000 0.1583 0.0000 0.0000 0.1815 0.0000 0.4660 0.0000 0.4295 0.2003 0.0000 0.4496 0.0000 0.0000 1.4124 0.3390 0.8566 0.3973 0.0431 0.0877 0.0637 0.0021 0.0098 3.5572 1.6893 0.6216 0.9153 0.4156 0.0000 0.6693 0.7881 0.0922 1.0912 0.9926 0.0707 0.7318 0.0917 0.0879 1.3980 1.1818 85.0363 15.9988 106.2739 80.9828 16.1132 104.6932 18.7173 14.5748 104.4137 57.9630 86.5425 57.8812 16.2020 16.6156 21.4493 19.5746 17.3776 118.5678 112.4442 37.1892 88.0864 60.3868 16.5731 77.0723 87.0852 22.8491 106.7852 115.7983 23.9576 91.6002 27.2674 25.5844 114.5540 120.4874 0.0264 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0067 0.0010 0.0000 0.0027 0.0254 0.0000 0.0013 0.0254 0.0000 0.0005 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0074 0.5827 0.0000 0.3747 0.6638 0.0000 0.3068 0.0000 0.0000 0.2611 0.5698 0.3680 0.5042 0.0000 0.0000 0.1614 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.1746 0.0000 0.3394 0.4841 0.0533 0.3763 0.4537 0.1605 0.2719 0.3419 0.1619 0.3132 0.1681 0.1615 0.2485 0.3239 15
Slide 16: Table 3 cont. Gas Chromatography Analysis - average values of samples run in triplicate of Peach and Apple Varieties for specific components vial acetone ethyl acetate methanol ethanol propanol isoamyl alcohol Sample name # % % % % % % RDA 10-16 F3 tl B1 RDA 10-16 F3 hd B2 RDA 10-16 F3 hrt B2 RDA 10-16 F3 tl B2 RDA 10-23 F4 hd B2 RDA 10-23 F4 hrt B2 RDA 10-23 F4 tl B2 RDA 10-23 F4 hd B1 RDA 10-23 F4 hrt B1 RDA 10-23 F4 tl B1 JA 10-15 hd B1 JA 10-15 hrt B1 JA 10-15 tl B1 JA 10-15 hd B2 JA 10-15 hrt B2 JA 10-15 tl B2 Key to Table 3 OGA – Ozark Gold Apples GA – Gayla Apples RHP – Red Haven Peach JA – Jonathon Apples MA – Mixed Apples RDA – Red Delicious Apples RA – Redistilled Apple tails hd – head cut hrt – heart cut tl – tail cut B1 – Batch 1 B2 – Batch 2 Q – Questionable F – Fermenter 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.2057 0.0000 0.0000 0.0836 0.0000 0.0000 0.2524 0.0000 0.0000 0.6654 0.1074 0.0000 0.1177 0.0000 0.0000 0.0961 1.1829 0.7289 0.0872 0.9789 1.0425 0.2253 1.9069 1.3995 0.1760 2.4043 1.8361 0.2613 1.4664 1.0556 0.2785 23.1569 115.5504 100.2199 23.2240 87.1447 97.2328 27.1043 115.8866 116.7810 23.8878 131.2420 128.2821 27.4043 106.8810 95.6606 26.1624 0.0000 0.0027 0.1088 0.0000 0.0000 0.0236 0.0000 0.0000 0.0247 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0015 0.0000 0.1604 0.3377 0.5676 0.1069 0.4322 0.5714 0.1669 0.2524 0.4079 0.1645 0.2418 0.2936 0.1694 0.3368 0.7078 0.1064 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this portion of the project was to refine established methods to produce quality distillates of fruit brandy, and determine which cultivars of continued to show the most promise as a fruit distillate. Two types of distillates were studied, distillates that produce high quality sipping brandies and distillates that can be used to create other brandy products such as fruit ports and infusions. The highest quality portion of the distillate is found in the heart cut 2. It possesses the most fruit character and the least amount of lower and higher alcohols that mask the fruit aromas of the fruit distilled. No pattern for the location of cuts was determined to exist between different cultivars. However, it was found that the quality of the fruit had a definite impact on where the cuts were made and the quality and quantity of bandy made. It could not be determined in this study that all fruit required a specific quantity, 500ml for example, for the head cut based on any one set of parameters. To make cuts of a specific volume would have sacrificed the quality of the heart in many of the trials by increasing the amount of ethyl acetate in the heart. Also, setting specific quantities of heart to be collected after the head cut was made would have resulted in either a decrease in quantity of good heart, or a decrease in quality of the heart due to higher alcohols of musty, rancid odors present in the heart cut. It was found that sensory was the best method for locating where to make the cuts. An in-depth study of a particular variety will need to be 16
Slide 17: conducted to determine if a pattern for the location of head, heart, and tail cuts exists within a specific cultivar. The results show that there is great opportunity with extended study to determine specific patterns necessary to create quality distillates from an individual cultivar. This will allow production of higher quality, single-cultivar, brandies. However, blending brandies made from several different single-cultivar batches mingled components that made a better product in most cases than a single-cultivar brandy. For example the Gayla apple displayed a heavier mouth feel than the Jonathon apple. The Jonathon seemed to carrier a stronger apple essence. When the two were blended the resulting brandy had very nice apple essence and good mouth-feel. Even when the many cultivars were fermented together prior to distillation, the resulting product carried more positive characteristics than any single-cultivar batch. This determination was based on sensory evaluation of the all brandies produced in 2001 and 2002. This preliminary study of many cultivars of each, apple and peach, will lend itself to choosing a few specific cultivars for further study, as well as more advanced studies in blending practices of different cultivars. All varieties show promise as good fortifying brandies for other products such as fruit ports and fruit infusions. REFERENCES 1. Tanner, H., and Brunner, H.R., Fruit Distillation Today 3rd ed., (English Translation) Heller Chemical and Administration Society, Germany. 2. Christian-Carl Company, Alexander Plank and Christian Plank, Correspondence with Author. 1999-2001. 3. Claus, Michael J. and Berglund, Kris A., Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Midwest Regional Grape and Wine Conference 2001, pg. 27-35. 4. The Merck Index, 13th edition, Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, 2001 17

   
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