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Light, Agile and Flexible: Collaborating the Web 2.0 Way’ 

Light, Agile and Flexible: Collaborating the Web 2.0 Way’


Tags:  networks  steven downes  education  web2.0  web 2.0 
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Published:  January 21, 2010

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Slide 1: Light, Agile and Flexible: Collaborating the Web 2.0 Way Stephen Downes June 4, 2008
Slide 2: Light, Agile and Flexible: Collaborating the Web 2.0 Way 1. 2. 3. 4. Collaboration Tools Trends Philosophies
Slide 3: 1. Collaboration
Slide 4: Definition • From Wikipedia: – Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge and mutual learning between two or more people who are working together, in an intellectual endeavor, toward a common goal which is typically creative in nature.
Slide 5: The Process • Often associated with ‘teamwork’ • Gray (1989) explores collaboration as a process by framing it in three phases: problem setting, direction setting, and structuring • May also be associated with the output – a ‘collaboration’
Slide 6: The Main Idea • … is of working together • sharing of planning, making decisions, solving problems, setting goals, assuming responsibility, working together cooperatively, communicating, and coordinating openly (Baggs & Schmitt, 1988).
Slide 7: Collaborative Processes • • • • • Team Creation Idea Generation Decision-Making Work or Production Evaluation or Recap
Slide 8: Team Creation • = connecting • Katzenbach and Smith – Small numbers of people - < 12 – Complementary skills in group members – Common purposes for working – Performance goals agreed upon – Shared working approaches – Mutual accountability amongst all members The Wisdom of Teams. New York, NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Slide 9: Idea Generation • • • • • • • = creating Brainstorming Concept mapping / mind mapping Breakdown (analysis) Storyboarding Role Play Etc.
Slide 10: Decision-Making • • • • • • • = deciding Autocratic Hand-clasping and cliques Consensus Deliberative Processes Polling Voting (voting mechanisms)
Slide 11: Work or Production • = producing • Functions: execution, tracking, timelining and optimizing… • Separate roles and responsibilities – individual work • Iterative (eg. Word Update) • Common Environment (Music and Lyrics)
Slide 12: Evaluation or Recap • • • • = reflecting Tabulation of expectations and results Surveying, polling Scoring and measurement against objective standards • Story-telling, lessons learned • Collection of best practices
Slide 13: 2. Tools
Slide 14: An Electronic Environment • Basic needs: – Computers, mobile phones, PDAs – Wireless internet connection – Power outlets – Display screens or monitors
Slide 15: Basic Communications • • • • • • • Email / Mailing List Instant messaging Bulletin or Discussion Board Telephone / Audio Chat Meeting / Video Conference Presentation Tools Document storage and exchange
Slide 16: Web 2.0
Slide 17: The Core Technologies Web 2.0 RoadMap
Slide 18: • Social Networking
Slide 19: • Tagging
Slide 20: • Asynchronous Javascript and XML (AJAX) Jesse James Garrett in February 2005.
Slide 21: • Representational State Transfer (REST) - principles that outline how resources are defined and addressed - looser sense: domain-specific data over HTTP without an additional messaging layer such as SOAP or session tracking via HTTP cookies.
Slide 22: • Application Program Interface (API) and Mash-Ups
Slide 23: • Javascript Object Notation (JSON)
Slide 24: Team Creation • Group Formation – Yahoo groups – Google Groups • CMSs, LMSs, etc. • Social Networks – Friendster, LinkedIn, Orkut, MySpace, Facebook, etc. • Network Formation – Ning, Elgg
Slide 25: Idea Generation • Brainstorming Tools • Research and Tracking – and RSS readers • Concept mapping / mind mapping • Storyboarding – web comics • Role Play • Etc.
Slide 26: Decision-Making • = deciding • Slashdot – reputation management • Collective Wisdom – Digg – • Individual actions resulting in collective voice - Wikipedia
Slide 27: Work or Production • = producing • SubEthaEdit • Writely -> Google Docs • • Zoho -
Slide 28: Evaluation or Recap • = reflecting • Blogger - Live Journal - Movable Type Wordpress • Educational Blogging – article • Educational Weblogs - • Wikipedia – as compared to Britannica by Nature
Slide 29: 3. Trends
Slide 30: Mobile
Slide 31: User-Generated Content
Slide 32: Multimedia Platforms • Eg. YouTube – in a way – Second Life • But esp. on line multimedia editors • Flickr, Podcasting - wikipedia • iPodder - Odeo – Liberated Syndication • Youtube - video • Podcasting in Learning Ed Tech Talk Ed Tech Posse - FLOSSE Posse Bob Sprankle Education Podcast Network
Slide 33: Software as a Service
Slide 34: Flow • • • • IM and SMS expanded – Twitter Facebook ‘status’ updates – the now RSS, podcasting and other content feeds Mode – the idea of flow – how do you survive in a world of constant change? Stop thinking of things as static
Slide 35: Identity • The idea: identity as personal, not institutional • You own your data • Identity 2.0 – Dick Hardt • OpenID
Slide 36: No More Walled Gardens • Social and content networks distributed across services • But also… importantly… the walls or institutions and corporations are also less important
Slide 37: Personal Learning Environment • • • • Aggregate Remix Repurpose Feed Forward
Slide 38: Un… • As in, unorganized, eg. the Unconference • Markets are conversations - vs broadcasts
Slide 39: 4. Philosophies
Slide 40: Two Theories of Collaboration • The essentialist theory… collaboration is based on some sort of sameness – same value, same outcome, same tool, same funding body … needs external motivation • The exchange theory… collaboration is based on interaction between autonomous and diverse entities … based on intrinsic motivation
Slide 41: The Semantic Principle
Slide 42: Groups and Networks “Groups require unity, networks require diversity. Groups require coherence, networks require autonomy. Groups require privacy or segregation, networks require openness. Groups require focus of voice, networks require interaction. ”
Slide 43: Rethinking Learning
Slide 44: Their Natures • A group is a collection of entities or members according to their nature; what defines a group is the quality members possess and number • A network is an association of entities or members via a set of connections; what defines a network is the extent and nature of this connectivity
Slide 45: Groups, Schools, Classes • A group, in other words, is a school (of thought, of fish…) or a class of some sort. • Or: classes and schools are just groups. They are defined as groups. • Can we even think of schools – and of learning – without thinking at the same time of the attributes of groups?
Slide 46: Elements and Ecologies • A group is elemental, defined by mass and sameness – like an ingot of metal (Aside: democracy is a group phenomenon) • A network is diverse and changing, defined by interactions – like an ecosystem Can we achieve order, responsibility, identity in an ecosystem? Do we need the iron hand? (Aside: Solon, learning, justice)
Slide 47: Group Unity • A group must be cohesive, united, “out of many, one”… “the people, united, will never be defeated…” The melting pot… the encouragement is to conform, to be like the others • Group technology appeals to the mass: television, radio, newspapers, books • Internet technology includes: all-staff email, corporate website, portal
Slide 48: Network Diversity • A network, by contrast, thrives on diversity … “to each his own” … the salad bowl… the encouragement is to be distinct, to create • Network technology includes: talking, telephoning, writing letters, personal email • Internet technology: personal home pages, blogs
Slide 49: Group Coordination • Groups require coordination, a leader, someone who will show the way… and to be managed… a group will often be defined by its values (aka the leader’s values?) and then a way to get members to follow, to share the vision, will define standards - members belong to a group • Associated technology includes the Learning Management System, Learning Design, LOM, etc
Slide 50: Network Autonomy • Networks require autonomy, that is, that each individual operate independently according to his or her own values and interests – cooperation entails mutual exchange of value rather than follower and leader – members interact with a network • Associated technology: e-portfolios, personal learning environments
Slide 51: Group Borders or Boundaries • Groups are closed - they require a boundary that defines members and nonmembers – walls - membership, logins and passwords, jargon and controlled vocabulary, lock-in (staying on-message, speak as one) • Technology: enterprise computing, federated search, user IDs and passwords, copyrights, patents, trademarks, assertions of exclusivity
Slide 52: Network Openness • Networks require that all entities be able to send and receive messages both (a) in their own way and (b) without being impeded • In their own way: open source software, platform independence, APIs, RSS, communities of practice • Without being impeded: Creative Commons and GPL, distributed identity
Slide 53: Group Centralization • Groups are distributive – knowledge, information, money, etc., flows from the centre – an ‘authority’ and is distributed through to their members
Slide 54: Networks Connective • • • • Peer-to-peer Conversation Distributive emergent
Slide 55: Why Networks? • Nature of the knower: humans are more like networks than • Quality of the knowledge: groups are limited by the capacity of the leader • Nature of the knowledge: group knowledge is transmitted and simple (cause-effect, yes-no, etc) while network knowledge is emergent and complex • In complex systems, need networks
Slide 56: Stephen Downes

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