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Slide 1: HOW TO CONDUCT A SEARCH OF A STUDENT: FROM POLICY TO HANDBOOK TO PRACTICE Therold I. Farmer Walsh, Anderson, Brown, Schulze & Aldridge, P.C. 6300 Lo Calma, Suite 200 Austin, Texas 78752 ( 5 1 2 ) 454-6864 FAX (512)467-9318 70 N.E. loop 410, Suite 800 San Antonio, Texas 78216 (210)979-6633 FAX (210) 979-7024 511 E. John Carpenter Freeway, Suite 430 Irving, Texas 75062 (214) 574-8800 FAX (214) 574-8801 TASSP Assistant Principal Workshop February 28, 2000 Contents: A. Practical Principles for Personal Searches................................................................................................ 1 Locker Searches ................................................................................................. 2 Automobile Searches............................................................................................ 3 B. Chain of Custody........................................................................................................ 4 C. Interaction with Law Enforcement Questioning Kids on Campus ............................................................................ 6 School-Police Protocols........................................................................................ 8 Seizures of the Person ....................................................................................... 10 D. Investigating and Interviewing .................................................................................. 11 Appendix .................................................................................................................... 16 What Isn't a Search? Excerpts from TASB model Student Handbook Excerpts from TASB model Student Code of Conduct TASB sample local policies FNF
Slide 2: HOW TO CONDUCT A SEARCH OF A STUDENT: FROM POLICY TO HANDBOOK TO PRACTICE Therold I. Farmer Walsh, Anderson, Brown, Schulze & Aldridge, PC A. PRACTICAL ISSUES IN CONDUCTING STUDENT SEARCHES General Practical Principles 1. Team up. Have a witness with you from the beginning until anything you seize has been secured. This practice reduces claims involving excessive force, abuse, missing objects, "planted" evidence. It also provides corroboration in case of denial or a later change in the student's story. And, of course, it may provide you a measure of personal security in case the student becomes agitated or bellicose. 2. Escort. Don't just page or call over the intercom. Escort the student from the classroom to the place the search is to occur. 3. No stops. Any request for a stop at the restroom or locker should be declined. 4. Bring everything. Have the student bring their personal belongings, including jacket, hat, books, gym bag, book bag, back pack, purse. Personal searches 1. Same sex. Any search that involves touching the student's body-even through clothing-should be done by an administrator (or other employee) of the same sex as the student to be searched. 2. Don't be a hero. If you have reasonable suspicion that a student possesses a weapon, take appropriate precautions. If you think the weapon may be on the student's person., call for assistance by campus or district security or local law enforcement. 3. Privacy, please. Searches of the person should never be done in front of other students. Use a private office or room. 4. Methodology. Have the student remove outer clothing such as jacket, cap, shoes. Position yourself to the side of the student. Work from top to bottom on each side. Check the middle of the back, inside the forearms, inside the thighs, behind the knees.
Slide 3: 5. Crush, don't pat. The term "pat-down," although familiar to law enforcement and school administrators alike, is a misnomer. Don't pat clothing; instead, crush the cloth with your hands. A mere "pat" may easily overlook flat objects-particularly those attached to the body or slipped between linings and outer materials of jackets. 6. This isn't bingo. When you find contraband, don't stop. Continue until all objects and clothing have been investigated. There could be lots more. Remember TLO. Where would we be today if Asst. Prin. Choplick had been content to find an open pack cf Marlboros? 7. Look and touch. Examine any items that have been set aside from pockets, purses, book bags. Pick them up and feel of them—don't just provide a visual inspection. 8. Remember you have five senses. Again, honor Mr. Choplick. He smelled cigarette smoke on Ms. TLO, whose denial that she smoked will live in infamy. Locker searches Can't we do dragnet searches of lockers? Know your policy. Some Texas districts have adopted dragnet or "administrative" searches of lockers as the norm. Those districts have, I assume, experienced a history of dangerous situations that would allow a court to tip the balance in favor of governmental intrusiveness on personal privacy. One Texas case walked right up the answer, but then backed away. In Shoemaker v. State, 971 S.W.2d 178 (Tex. App.--Beaumont 1998), the Assistant Principal acted under "color of school authority" in searching locker for credit cards stolen from Assistant principal's own purse. Thus, the Texas statute requiring suppression of evidence obtained illegally by a private citizen was held to be inapplicable. Although the items were owned personally by the AP, she didn't exceed her authority in searching for them, regardless of ownership. The case suggests in dictum that certain statements in the student handbook reduce the student's expectation of privacy in the lockers-and therefore that locker searches were permissible with the necessity of establishing reasonable suspicion. But the court held explicitly that reasonable cause existed-thus reserving the suspicionless-search question for another day. Searching under the reasonable cause standard 1. Know your policy. Check your Student Handbook or Student Code of Conduct. Does one of those documents let students know clearly that lockers are school property and that they remain under the control of the school even when assigned to a particular student?
Slide 4: If so, the expectation of privacy is lower and the District's chances of withstanding a Fourth-Amendment-based challenge are greater. 2. So nice to share? If the locker is shared by more than one student, the probability of linking any contraband to a particular student is low. 3. Enforce locking. The lack of an enforced policy or rule requiring that locks be used raises the risk of a successful "It-was-planted-on-me" defense. 4. Whether to have the student there. Although not required by law, many administrators find that having the student present for the locker search is ordinarily advantageous. Of course, the student should not be allowed so near the locker that he can conveniently grab his grass and run. And if the risk of physical danger is high (e.g., if you're searching for a weapon), this "general" advantage is lost: You will want to keep the student as far from the gun as you can get him. 5. Watch the face. One witness should be positioned in such a way that he/she can watch the student's facial expressions and other reactions. 6. Take a tub. Prepare to empty the locker into a suitable container. Don't just riffle through it. Take each object out and examine it. Take everything out before you put anything back in. Automobile searches 1. Know your policy. If your policy (or Student Code or Student Handbook) contains a series of sequential steps in seeking entry into a locked automobile, be sure you follow them in order. For example, at what point-if any-should you call the police to intervene7 2. Watch. Although not legally required, having the student present for the search is ordinarily preferred. If you're searching for a loaded weapon, though, apply common sense. Post a witness where the student's facial expression, "body language," and responses may be observed. 3. Forced entry? Although legally you may make a forced entry if you have reasonable cause to search, exhaust all other means first, including calling a locksmith to open the car. 4. No damage. Damage to the automobile should, obviously, be avoided.
Slide 5: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. humidity molds, mildews drying of plants caking of powders corrosion of metals amounts consumed by laboratory testing color affected by exposure to light Security: Seized evidence must be kept secure. As a practical matter, you don't want others to have access to dangerous substances or instrumentalities. As a legal matter, you're likely to need the evidence for use at a hearing or trial. And, of course, you want to be able to deny that anybody has had the opportunity to tamper with the evidence. 1. Consider using lock-seal envelopes such as are used by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and many other law enforcement agencies for purpose of preserving evidence. Consider the security of the office, as well as the file, cabinet, vault, or safe in which the evidence is maintained. Security is always a potential point of attack on the chain of custody. Exhibits that must be subjected to laboratory analysis must be handled in such a way that the lab analyzed the item in the same condition in which it was seized. 2. 3. What should you turn over to the police? There are occasional threats of arrest for "possession of a controlled substance" that result from campus administrators' possession of contraband they've seized from students. Commonly, the matter never goes beyond the "threat" stage-but a few arrests have been reported. Your author knows of no convictions. In any event, such a conviction would be unlikely to "stick." However, you can spare yourself the embarrassment by developing a high degree of communication and cooperation with your local law enforcement agencies. . . . Which brings us to the topic of. . .
Slide 6: C. INTERACTION WITH LAW ENFORCEMENT Questioning of Students by Law Enforcement Most Texas school districts have adopted policies governing their relations with other governmental agencies, including local law enforcement. [See, for example, Policy GRA (LOCAL), GKA (LOCAL).] Police officers' attempts to question students on campus frequently provoke conflict. The campus administrator who understands the basis for the various situations can reduce that conflict and assist in making schools and police the valuable and respected "team" that they can be. Three situations: There are three very different classes of students whom law enforcement frequently question at school. 1. Victims: alleged victims of child abuse or neglect (and their siblings, their step- and foster-siblings, and other children of the home); Suspects: students whom the police intend to arrest for crimes that have occurred on or off campus; and Witnesses: children whom police believe may have useful information regarding-but no actual involvement in-criminal activity. 2. 3. Here's an in-depth analysis of each: 1. Victims and the Unprotected: Questioning victims and potential victims of child abuse A common circumstance involving questioning at school occurs when the law enforcement officer is the designated representative of the Child Protective Services (CPS) Division, Texas Dept. of Protective and Regulatory Services, for the purpose of conducting a child neglect or abuse investigation. See Educ. Code §38.004(a) Public Purpose The societal interest in permitting these investigations at school is the protection of children. State statute gives Child Protective Service (CPS) investigators or law enforcement officers designated by CPS the right to enter a school to investigate reports of child abuse or neglect.
Slide 7: The interview with and examination of the child may . . . be conducted at any reasonable time and place, including the child's home or the child's school . . Fam. Code §261.302. School's duty: The investigator has access at school to the child and to any other children of the home. The scope of the investigation, which may occur at school (see above) may include "an interview with" and "examination of any child in the home." Fam. Code §261.302. In context, the phrase "in the home" appears to mean "living under the same roof-not a restriction on the site of the examination. 2. Questioning "Target" Witnesses or Suspects Sometimes the officer arrives at school intending to "take a child into custody" Public purpose: The societal interests in this situation are different from the ones served in child abuse investigations. Here, the police are attempting to enforce criminal laws. If a law enforcement officer arrives on campus intending to take a student into custody because the student has allegedly violated criminal law, whether the behavior is school-related makes no legal difference in where the child may be taken into custody. Process: It is common for police officers to ask a few questions of a suspect before making an arrest. Thus, there will likely be some limited questioning of the student (e.g., establishing identity, inquiries about others involved in the criminal conduct, etc ) before the officer takes the student into custody. Although the Texas Family Code may suggest that the general rule is that law enforcement will have a court order before taking a child into custody, the exceptions to this general rule render the rule virtually meaningless. School's Duty: If the officer intends to take a particular child into custody, he/she has a "right" to do so at school. Although the school district may attempt to negotiate time, place, and circumstances (see below), and should establish the identity of the officer, school officials do not have the power simply to refuse. 3. Questioning Non-target Witnesses Law enforcement's desire to question children who may be merely "fact witnesses" presents the most conflict-fraught circumstance. Campus administrators will do well to
Slide 8: think in advance about their responses to officers' attempts to question a "non-target" witness-a student who may have information but who is unlikely to be arrested. Public Purpose: In connection with the legitimate police function of gathering information about criminal activity, the primary societal interest is administrative convenience. Under these circumstances, officers seek to question certain students at school not intending to arrest them, but to gain information about the behavior of others. It is convenient to enter schools to question students, because that is where students predictably can be found at certain times. And, let's face it, mama isn't standing in the way. School's Duty: Police lawful ability to question fact witnesses at school is not clearly established by law. Texas law does not address the issue of questioning non-target witnesses who are minors. There is no statutory "right" of law enforcement to question students from whom they seek information but whom they do not intend to take into custody at school. And yet the response by police officers to a campus administrator's reluctance is sometimes a threat to charge with obstruction of justice or hindering prosecution., (Although perhaps the threat is merely a bluff, the school official's duty is not set out in law, either.) Since no law sets out the school's duty, this is an opportunity either for constant conflict orfor cooperation and agreement. The school's duty depends, ideally, upon, protocols negotiated in discussions between local school officials and local law enforcement officials. (Less ideally, it depends on the ad hoc decisions of school officials and the attitude of law enforcement officers.) Juvenile prosecutors and probation officers should also be included in the discussions. What Would Locally-developed School-police Protocols Cover? There's no state "model". Many of the matters are intensely local, depending on the seriousness of juvenile problems, the effectiveness of current juvenile programs, population, staffing limitations, and other school or law enforcement concerns. These Issues are frequently important in school-police cooperation: 1. Small amounts of controlled substances: Is there some small quantity of marijuana or other controlled substances below which law enforcement agencies are not interested in responding? Seriousness of criminal activity: Similarly, should there be thresholds on other activity (minor vandalism, simple assaults, possession of paraphernalia or inhalants, 8 2.
Slide 9: possession of small quantitiesof alcohol) below which law enforcement does not want to be involved7 3. Procedures in seizure of contraband and chain of custody: Are there procedures (initials and date of seizure, lock-seal envelopes, secured place) that principals would use when seizing contraband so that the "chain of custody" can be proven if the evidence is needed later? Sliding-scale of symbolism: Should there be a distinction (in access, in time of day, in visibility) between taking custody of students for school-related incidents and for non-school-related? Are there some offenses for which officers will arrive at the back door instead of the front? Some for which they may proceed directly to the class9 Some for which they'll wait in the office for a school official to bring Little Johnny in7 Some for which they'll arrive quietly? In unmarked cars? Questioning students at school for convenience: Should there be a threshold of seriousness? Should law enforcement be required to conclude that it's unlikely they can find the student after school? If questioning of non-target witness is allowed, who will be present, where will it be done, wtio decides when, does principal have "veto" or postponement power in extraordinary circumstances? Under what circumstances will law enforcement be expected to call ahead anc forewarn the principal of their arrival? All? How much notice to the principal is reasonable? To what extent will scheduled school events such as semester exams, TAAS tests, and special assemblies, be taken into consideration? May the school just say "nc" during those times? Will the "no" be honored? 6. Guns at school: Whether a first-time and apparently "innocent" (lacking intent) student offender who has a gun in his pickup will be arrested, whether the weapon will be confiscated, whether parents will be called--and, if so, who is responsible for the call? Fights: Some school districts have adopted a policy that requires calling the police in the event of a fights. Are the police agreeable to responding to every fight? Were they initially—but are now cooling to the idea of "zero tolerance"? (Do you know9) What will be the response of the community when the news hound, during a slow news day, decides to print the headline CRIME WAVE ROCKS LOCAL JUNIOR HIGH Police officials today identified the BUTTOCKS MIDDLE SCHOOL as the location in the county experiencing the highest concentration of police calls over a six-month period. Police were called 4. 5. 7.
Slide 10: to BMS 53 times over the past six months. IS YOUR CHILD SAFE 7 Police blotters viewed by our intrepid reporter showed 26 assaults by threat, 4 assaults with bodily injury, 7 terroristic threats, and 3 batteries. Tearful parents interviewed for this story reported that their children returning home from BMS frequently experienced torn clothing, bruises, and black eyes . . . . [Ad nauseam.] Communications about why schools do what they do: School officials need to help police officers understand the rationale behind the district's decisions to adopt certain procedures. If school officials decline to explain such rationales ("That's always been our policy"), law enforcement officials often presume that the school officials are being territorial, arbitrary, or obstructionist. May the district require that an administrator be present for questioning? In general, local policies are enforceable only against those persons overwhom the district holds authority. The district does not have authority over law enforcement or CPS investigators. According to a Texas Attorney General's opinion, a school official may neither refuse to permit CPS investigator to interview a child at school nor require that school personnel be present during child abuse investigation. DM-476 (1998). Even assuming that the school had such a policy and that law enforcement voluntarily complied with the policy, law enforcement officers may nonetheless interrupt the questioning to take the child into custody. Should parents be told of questioning? In the past, many school districts had policies that required their administrators to notify a child's parent or guardian of the arrival of investigators or police officers who intended to question the child. More recently, many districts have modified this requirement by giving the campus administrator much discretion by permitting the investigator's request to control the question, or by eliminating the notice altogether. At times law enforcement officers have a legitimate need to avoid "tipping off" parents or guardians to the fact that questioning of the student is occurring, such as cases of possible child abuse or possible criminal activity involving an accessory or co-conspirator in the same household. Seizures of the person Notifying Parent of Taking Student Into Custody: Whose Job? State statute requires any person who takes a child into custody to "promptly give notice of his action and a statement of the reason... to the child's parent, guardian or custodian." 10
Slide 11: Family Code §262.109 ("Promptly" is undefined.) Who are these persons? Police officers, juvenile probation officers, and officers of the juvenile court have the powerto take a juvenile into custody-the juvenile equivalent of an "arrest." Practically, the school (not the police station) will be the first place the parent will call when the student doesn't arrive home at the usual after-school time. Although the school is not obligated by law to make the contact, officials should consider having a procedure to tei! parents that the cops came and dragged Little Johnny off to the Juvie. D. INVESTIGATING AND INTERVIEWING Suggestions for Investigating Student Disciplinary Incidents General Observations 1. No formula. These guidelines are suggested for use in investigating general allegations of student misconduct. Complaints of sexual harassment or sexual abuse will require more stringent procedures. These guidelines are not intended as a formula; they should be modified to suit the specific situation at hand. 2. Your job. A campus administrator can and must question students and others in trying to determine what the facts are, whether discipline of a student is appropriate, and what type of discipline should be imposed. 3. Sliding scale. The seriousness of the allegations and consequent "level" of discipline should guide the formality with which you conduct a disciplinary investigation. If expulsion is possible, keep in mind that all the protections of constitutional due process must be safeguarded. If a short-term suspension or AEP is possible, a "Goss-type" conference (see explanation below*) should be provided. But if the maximum punishment is, say, a few days in ISS, following all these guidelines would be "overkill" because no formality of any kind is required-just a reasonable basis for your decision. 4. Miranda warnings not required. By contrast with criminal law, the "accused" has no right to be represented by an attorney in the investigation stage of a student disciplinary process. Furthermore, questioning students is not a "search," so you need neither consent nor reasonable suspicion to ask questions and require answers, whether written or oral. (Miranda warnings do apply to law enforcement officers when they are questioning students who may be suspects in a crime, probably including school district police officers if they are commissioned "peace officers.") 5. No "Fifth." Similarly, the constitutional privilege against self-incrimination does not apply to a school disciplinary proceeding. 11
Slide 12: 6. Dual role. In a disciplinary investigation, you need not be objective. At some point, you are both accuser and initial decision-maker. That's the way our system is structured and you need not feel apologetic about it. (By contrast, of course, in a sexual-harassment investigation you must maintain objectivity.) 7. Involving parents. Know the policy-based circumstances under which parents must be contacted. A parent conference is not required by law before questioning or as part cf an investigation-but is often appropriate, particularly if the offense is serious or surprising or if the disciplinary sanction is severe. In any case, to use the threat of parental contact as a "weapon" against a student's lack of cooperation is ill-advised. Conducting the Investigation 1. Tie down evidence. Secure any physical evidence such as suspected controlled substances, empty bottles, stolen property, weapons. (See above on "Chain of Custody.") 2. Do your own investigation. If there's a police investigation of the same behaviorai incident, go ahead and do your own investigation regardless. 3. Interview witnesses. As promptly as possible, interview witnesses to corroborate the complaint, a report, or your suspicions. If the incident involves one student's misconduct toward or with another student, other witnesses may include the complainant's or the alleged perpetrator's friends. Interview individuals who may be able to corroborate facts, but there's no need to interview "character" witnesses (the one's who'll say "I've known Student C since kindergarten and he'd never do a thing like that"). Questioning of fact witnesses should include finding out whether they are willing to testify at an expulsion hearing. 4. Get statements. To require a statement in the student's own writing, in the student's own words, and signed by the student is a sound practice. This reduces later accusations that the investigator "put words in the mouth" of the student. Grammar and spelling are not at issue so long as the statement can be read and understood. Pre-lnterview Preparation 1. Gather documents: Gather all pertinent information and become familiar with it: applicable policy, student handbook, extracurricular rules, Student Code of Conduct, prior disciplinary referrals, your own logs and notes of conferences with teachers and parents concerning this student or related incidents. 2. List interviewees: Make a preliminary list of the persons who should be interviewed. Following each interview, consider revision (expansion) of this list. Are there more leads? You don't have to chase down each one, but-particularly when no professional educator 12
Slide 13: is a witness to the alleged misbehavior-- you should ordinarily attempt to interview any persons the student names who might offer exculpatory evidence 3. Prepare questions: Most administrators-even experienced ones—find it useful tc prepare questions in advance. At the very least, prepare "lines of questioning" or list specific facts you need to determine. Even with specific preparation, you must of course remain open to unanticipated themes or facts. Interviewing Witnesses 1. Record? Remember that you may not lawfully audio-record or video-record a student's statement without written parental consent. If you believe audio- or video-recording of a student statement is desirable, get prior written consent from the parent. Educ. Code § 26.009. No parental consent is needed, however, to require oral or written statements frorr, students. (These principles apply both to the "suspect" student and" students who are merely potential sources of information.) 2. Statements. A written statement should be the product of any pertinent student interview. To require a statement in the student's own writing is ordinarily the preferred practice, but the investigator may prepare a statement based on the interview. 3. Notes. For each ordinary un-recorded interview, take detailed notes. A good practice is to have a second administrator or other professional with you during the interview whc can take notes while you ask, listen, and observe. This permits you, as interviewer, tc concentrate on your questions and the student's responses-including the student's "body language" and facial expressions. 4. Purpose. State your purpose at the outset; telT'why we're here." 5. Calming. If the student witness appears frightened, you may discuss with then consequences of and protection from retaliation 6. Confidences. Avoid unnecessarily divulging the names of other students. Maintain confidentiality to the extent possible and as allowed by law-but do not promise confidentiality. (Some disclosure may be necessary in order to complete a thorough investigation-and testimony may be needed at a hearing ) 7. Questioning. Ask at least some open-ended questions-that is, questions that cannot be answered merely "yes" or "no." For example, "What did Student A do?" "How do you know Student B7" . . . instead of "Did Student A kick you?" "Don't you have English I with Student B?" 13
Slide 14: 8. Detail. If the student uses conclusory language ("she hurt him"), ask what the student saw, observed, knows. (Where were you standing/sitting9 Did you see anything in her hand9 Did you hear him cry out9 Did you see any blood9 Whe^e9) 9. Probe. If you're dissatisfied with the level of detail being provided, consider using follow-up questions that probe: "Can you give me an example of something Student A said that made you think Student B had smoked with him9" 10. Confession. If the accused student makes an admission or confession, read it back and get a verbal confirmation. 11. Goss requirements. Your interview of the accused student is a good opportunity for a "Goss-type" hearing (see below*) if that has not already been done. Tell the student what facts you believe will serve as the basis for discipline and-frcm the Student Code of Conduct-the range of disciplinary techniques that may be applied to this particular kind of misconduct. If your interview of the accused student is intended to be a "Goss-type" giveand-take hearing, it's important to permit the student to talk-to "tell his/her side of the story." You may ask explicitly, "Now, what's your side of the story?" Or, "What do you remember about that event?" With assertive, strong-willed, or defensive students, there's generally no need to prompt. But, regardless of the personality of the student. Gcss requires a certain amount of listening on your part. 12. Accused's version, include the accused student's version of the stony in ycur interview notes. 13. Closing. At the end of the interview, ask "Is there anything else you'd like to add?," summarize your interview notes, then ask the witness to review them for accuracy and sign the summary if it accurately reflects their statements. If the witness declines to sign the summary or allow use of his or her name, note that fact and retain the unsigned document. 14. Identifying. Identify your interview notes by date, beginning and ending time, persons present, and identity of interviewee. 15. Review. Most notes have gaps in them. Review the notes immediately to fill in ga and complete ideas. Don't wait until your memory fades and then try to reconstruct what was said. 16. Beware. As you write your notes, be aware that they will probably be subject to "discovery" in any lawsuit that's related to the subject matter of your investigation. So, write your notes as though an opposing lawyer-and possibly a judge or jury-will read them. ps
Slide 15: 14
Slide 16: *Goss: A brief review A "Goss-type hearing" is actually a conference-usually in the administrator's office-m which the student must be told what he/she is charged with and have an opportunity to tell his/her side of the story. If the student denies the charges, the student should be told what evidence the school is relying on. The conference can be short, simple, informal and oral. See, Goss v. Lopez, 419 U.S. 565, 95 S.Ct. 729, 42 L.Ed.2d 725 (1975). The conference is sometimes described as "give-and-take." The only people required to be present are the student and the administrator who'll make the disciplinary decision or recommendation The case requires such a "hearing" for a short term suspension. In Texas, it is advised before a removal to AEP 15
Slide 17: APPENDIX A. What Isn't a search? These behaviors don't implicate the Fourth Amendment: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Questioning a student Sniffing an odor emanating from a car or a bag Smelling a student's clothing, breath, or hands Comparing handwriting samples Examining items thrown into the trash or otherwise discarded Using a trained dog to sniff inanimate objects (e.g., cars, lockers, or book bags) Observing what's in plain view Watching a particular student especially closely B. Excerpts from Student Handbook: TASB Model Handbook (TASB Policy Service, Suppl. July 1999): Lockers are school property and remain underthe control and jurisdiction of the school even when assigned to an individual student. The student has full responsibility for the security of the assigned locker, for making certain that the locker is locked, and that the combination is not available to others. Searches of lockers may be conducted at any time there is reasonable cause to believe that they contain articles or materials prohibited by District policy, whether or not a student is present. The parent will be notified if any prohibited items are found in the student's locker. C. Excerpts from Student Code of Conduct: TASB Model Student Code of Conduct (TASB Policy Service, July 1999): The District has the right to search a vehicle driven to school by a student and parked on school property whenever there is reasonable cause to believe it contains articles or materials prohibited by the District. The District has the right to search a student's locker whenever there is reasonable cause to believe that it contains articles or materials prohibited by the District. 0. Sample local policies FNF from TASB files: The samples that follow are included for discussion purposes only. Rely only on your own locally-adopted policies. If you're interested in urging the local adoption of language from any of these samples, ask your appropriate district administrator to contact your district's Policy Service representative. 16
Slide 18: STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES INTERROGATIONS AND SEARCHES FNF (LOCAL) SCHOOL QUESTIONING Administrators, teachers, and other professional personnel mav question a student regarding the student's own conduct cr the cor duct of other students In the context of school discipline, student have no claim to the right not to incriminate themselves For provisions pertaining to student questioning by ia-v enforcement officials or other lawful authorities, see GRA (LOCAL) Students have full responsibility for the security ofiheiHockers an: vehicles parked on school property and shall m^Kecertain they ar-. locked and that the keys and combination are^jot giveru*6!others. Students shall not place, keep, or maintain an ^ lockers or vehicles parked on schc^property tha^tsforbidderjjfcy District policy. arch is locked, the student Lockers and vehicle searchec they con-by DisTncT policy. by school offici tain Students rohibited items found in articles or shalliae their lockers roperty. respon or veoj^s. park shall be askec _e vei^e. If the student refuses, the District shall con-.ent's parents. If the parents also refuse to permit the searched, the District may contact local law enforce-Tcials and turn the matter over to them. The student's parent or guardian shall be notified if any prohibitec articles or materials are found in a student's locker or vehicle parked on school property, or on the student's person as a result c a search conducted in accordance with this policy POLICE GR OTHER AUTHORITIES QUESTIONING LOCKERS AND VEHICLES PARENT NOTIFI DATE ISSUED: 04/17/1990 UPDATE 36 FNF (LOCAL)A ADOPTED: 1 of 1
Slide 19: STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES: INTERROGATIONS AND SEARCHES FNF (LOCAL) INTERROGATIONS BY SCHOOL OFFICIALS Administrators, teachers, and other professional personnel may question a student regarding the student's own concuct or the conduct of other students. In the context of school discipline, students have no claim tc the right not to incriminate themselves Fcr provisions pertaining to student questioning by la/; enforcement officials or other lawful authorities, see GRA(LOCAL). Students have full responsibility for the security of theiuJockers, and for vehicles parked on school property. It is the^Tuaent's responsibility to ensure that lockers and vehicles*a*reTocked and that the keys and combinations are not given to others. nts shall not place, keep, or maintain any article or mate forbidden chocl by District policy in lockers or in ve*q|cjes parked BY POLICE OR OTHER AUTHORITIES LOCKERS AND VEHICLES ty. School officials may property, if the^Us re or^fehiclespaxkelj on school se to^lie#gnhat they contain y Districtpoucy. Students shall be items found in their iockers or in verty. USEO DOGS articles or mat responsible for hicleHcltKed o to ____e^rch is locked, the student shall be askea icie. Ifthe student refuses, the District shall connt's parents. If the parents also refuse to permit a ehicle, the District may turn the matter over to loca! 'cement officials. The District shall use specially trained nonaggressive dogs to sniff out and alert officials to the current presence of concealed prohibited items, illicit substances defined in FNCF(LEGAL), and alcohol. This program is implemented in response to drug and alcohol related problems in District schools, with the objective of maintaining a safe school environment conducive to education. NOTICE Such visits to schools shall be unannounced. The dogs shall be used to sniff vacant classrooms, vacant common areas, the areas around student lockers, and the areas around vehicles parked on school property. The dogs shall not be used with students. If a dog alerts to a locker, a vehicle, or an item in a classroom, it may be searched by school officials. Searches of vehicles shall be conducted as described above. At the beginning of the school year, the District shall inform students of the District's policy on searches, as outlined above, and shall specifically notify students that:
Slide 20: 1. Lockers may be sniffed by trained dogs at any time. 1 of 2 DATE ISSUED: 04/10/1996 UPDATE 51 FNF (LOCAL)B
Slide 21: STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES: INTERROGATIONS AND SEARCHES FNF (LOCAL) INTERROGATIONS BY SCHOOL OFFICIALS Administrators, teachers, and other professional pe r sonnel may question a student regarding the student's own conauct or the conduct of other students. In the context of school discipline, students have no cl aim to t h e right not to incriminate themselves For provisions pertaining to student questioning by l a w enforcement officials or other lawful authorities, see GRA(LOCAL) Students have full responsibility for the security of theiolpckers, BY POLICE OR OTHER AUTHORITIES LOCKERS AND VEHICLES NOTICE and for vehicles parked on school property. It is t sponsibility to ensure that lockers and vehicles^re Students shall the keys and combinations are not given to others, ans forbidden chocl not place, keep, or maintain any article or material by District policy in lockers or in vlq^cjes parked o, tySchool on school se to^blie#g*mat they contain y Districnxrucy. Students shall be items found in their iockers or in verty. dent's reocked and that officials may property, if theceJs re articles or mat' responsible for hiclefacatked to sTs^rch is locked, the student shall be askea nlocRfihe vehicle. Ifthe student refuses, the District shall constSgjent'sparents. If the parents also refuse to permit a ehicle, the District may turn the matter over to local enforcement officials. i The District shaii use specially trained nonaggressive dogs to sniff out and alert officials to the current presence of concealed prohibited items, illicit substances defined in FNCF(LEGAL), and alcohol. This program is implemented in response to drug and alcohol related problems in District schools, with the objective of maintaining a safe school environment conducive to education. Such visits to schools shall be unannounced. The dogs shall be used to sniff vacant classrooms, vacant common areas, the areas around student lockers, and the areas around vehicles parked on school property. The dogs shall not be used with students. If a dog alerts to a locker, a vehicle, or an item in a classroom, it may be searched by school officials. Searches of vehicles shall be conducted as described above. USE DOGS At the beginning of the school year, the District shall inform students of the District's policy on searches, as outlined above, and
Slide 22: shall specifically notify students that: 1. Lockers may be sniffed by trained dogs at any time. 1 of 2 DATE ISSUED: 04/10/1996 UPDATE 51 FNF (LOCAL)B
Slide 23: STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES INTERROGATIONS AND SEARCHES FNF (LOCAL) INTERROGATIONS BY SCHOOL OFFICIALS BY POLICE OP OTHER AUTHORITIES LOCKERS AND VEHICLES Administrators, teacners. and other professional personnel may question a student regarding the student's own conduct or the conduct of other students. In the context of school discipline, students have r,c claim to the right not to incriminate themselves For provisions pertaining to student questioning cy law enforcement officials or cther lawful authorities, see GRA(LOCAL) Students have full responsibility for the security of theirjpckers. and for vehicles parked on school property. It is ocked and that the^Todent's redjfcts shali sponsibility to ensure that lockers and vehic! forbidde-; the keys and combinations are not given to or.' chool piof>ernot place, keep, or maintain any article or mate by District policy in lockers or in veQjtJes parked tySchool officials on schoci se toX25ue££^that they contain y Districtpoiicy. Students shall be d items found in their lockers or in vemay property, if theirs re« articles or responsible for hic!e^Ba?rJ<ed to slgarch is locked, the student shail be askec e. Ifthe student refuses, the District shaii con-arents. Ifthe parents also refuse to permit a ehicle, the District may turn the matter over to local element officials. The District shali use specially trained nonaggressive dogs tc sniff out and alert officials to the current presence of concealed prohibited items, illicit substances defined in FNCF(LEGAL), and alcohol. This program is implemented in response to drug and alcohol related problems in District schools, with the objective of maintaining a safe schoci environment conducive to education. NOTICE Such visits to schools shall be unannounced. The dogs shall be used to sniff vacant classrooms, vacant common areas, the areas around student lockers, and the areas around vehicles parked or school property. The dogs shall not be used with students. If a dog alerts to a locker, a vehicle, or an item in a classroom, it may be searched by school officials. Searches of vehicles shall be conducted as described above. At the beginning of the school year, the District shall inform students of the District's policy on searches, as outlined above, and shall specifically notify students that:
Slide 24: 1. Lockers may be sniffed by trained dogs at any time 1 of 2
Slide 25: STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES. INTERROGATIONS AND SEARCHES FNF (LOCAL) student shall be called out of class and asked by the prmcipa to open the locker. If the student refuses the Iccke' shaii be opened by the principal. Vehicles parked on school property may be sniffed by trained dogs at any time. Classrooms and other common areas nay be smfied by trained dogs at any time when students are not present. If contraband of any kind is found, the possessingrStudep.t shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary ac tip Ann accordance with the This policy shall be included in the student hanc during the orientation assembly. PARENT NOTIFICATION The student's parent articles or materials vehicle parked^jfliscK result of a sea reviewec nibited irra student's ent's person, as a this policy. Student Code of Conduc This sample is drawn from the TASB file of customized local policies created for individual districts. Please be aware that adoption by your district will require editorial and legal review to ensure Ks appropriateness for Inclusion In your localized policy manual. 2 of 2
Slide 26: STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES INTERROGATIONS AND SEARCHES FNF (LOCAL) INTERROGATIONS BY SCHOOL OFFICIALS BY POLICE OR OTHER AUTHORITIES LOCKERS AND VEHICLES Administrators, teachers, and other professional personnel may question a student regarding the student's own conduct or the conduct of other students In the context of school discipline, students have no claim to the right not to incriminate themselves For provisions pertaining to student questioning by law enforcement officials or other lawful authorities see GRA(LOCAL) Students have full responsibility for the security of their lockers, and for vehicles parked on school property. It is the^Jucient's responsibility to ensure that lockers and vehicles#af?Tiocked and that the keys and combinations are not given to onrers. Students shall not place, keep, or maintain any article or matefm^^Ws forbidden by District policy in lockers or in ve^des park'ed^Kschool property. School officials may sejarTn lockup, dT&ehicles parkScTbn school property, if thereJs reasQnablejgnlise toceHeyaJnat they contain articles or matejfets proBbitt^By District^iicy. Students shall be responsible for arjsirohiffifed items found in their lockers or in vearchns locked, the student shall be askec ^^ student refuses, the District shall con'denrsTpa rents. If the parents also refuse to permit a ie>vehicle, the District may turn the matter over to loca! ment officials. USE DOGS The District shall use specially trained nonaggressive dogs to sniff out and alert officials to the current presence of concealed prohibited items, illicit substances defined in FNCF(LEGAL), and alcohcl. This program is implemented in response to drug and alcohol related problems in District schools, with the objective of maintaining a safe school environment conducive to education. Such visits to schools shall be unannounced. The dogs shall be used to sniff vacant classrooms, vacant common areas, the areas around student lockers, and the areas around vehicles parked on school property. The dogs shall not be used with students. If a dog alerts to a locker, a vehicle, or an item in a classroom, it may be searched by school officials. Searches of vehicles shall be conducted as described above. NOTICE At the beginning of the school year, the District shall inform students of the District's policy on searches, as outlined above, and shall specifically notify students that: 1. Lockers may be sniffed by trained dogs at any time. When the dog indicates tha possibility that drugs are in a locker, the 1 Of 2 This sample Is drawn from the TASB file of customized local policies created for Individual districts. Please be aware that adoption by your district will require edKoriai and legal review to ensure Its appropriateness for Inclusion In your localized policy manual.
Slide 27: STUDENT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES INTERROGATIONS AND SEARCHES 2 3. 4. FNF (LOCAL) Vehicles parked on scnoo1 oroperty may be sniffed by uz^e: dogs at any time Classrooms and other common areas may be sniffed b> trained dogs at any time when students are net present If contraband of any kind is found, the possessing stjce~; shall be subject to appropriate disciplinary achen in acccdance with the Student Code of Conduct. PARENT NOTIFICATION The student's parent or guardian shall be notified if any»c-rohibite" articles or materials are found in a student's lockerrfn'astudents vehicle parked on school property, or on the stt5pems person as result of a search conducted in accordance wil 2 of 2

   
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