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Chapter 02 - Wan Router 

 

 
 
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Published:  April 23, 2012
 
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Slide 1: PART6 01-2004 Khoa CNTT WAN AND ROUTERS TS, PHẠM VĂN TÍNH PHẠM VĂN TÍNH
Slide 2: Objective  Identify organizations responsible for WAN standards  Explain the difference between a WAN and LAN and the type of addresses each uses  Describe the role of a router in a WAN  Identify internal components of the router and describe their functions  Describe the physical characteristics of the router  Identify common ports on a router  Properly connect Ethernet, serial WAN, and console ports 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 3: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 WAN STANDARDS
Slide 4: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 WAN Devices
Slide 5: WAN Devices 01-2004  Routers offer many services, including voice, data, and video communication. internetworking and WAN interface ports.  Switches in the WAN provide connectivity for Khoa CNTT  Modems include interface voice-grade services, PHẠM VĂN TÍNH channel service units/digital service units (CSU/ DSUs) that interface T1/E1 services, and Terminal Adapters/Network Termination 1 (TA/NT1s) that interface Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) services. dial-out user communication.  Communication servers concentrate dial-in and
Slide 6: WAN Standards  WAN physical layer protocols describe how to provide electrical, mechanical, operational, and functional connections for WAN services.  WAN data link protocols describe how frames are carried between systems on a single data link  WAN standards are defined and managed by a number of recognized authorities, including the following agencies:  International Telecommunication UnionTelecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T), formerly the Consultative Committee for International Telegraph and Telephone (CCITT)  International Organization for Standardization (ISO)  Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)  Electronic Industries Association (EIA) 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 7: WAN physical layer protocols 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 8: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 WAN data link protocols
Slide 9: WAN data link protocols High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) -- an IEEE standard; may not be compatible with different vendors because of the way each vendor has chosen to implement it. HDLC supports both point-to-point and multipoint configurations with minimal overhead Frame Relay -- uses high-quality digital facilities; uses simplified framing with no error correction mechanisms, which means it can send Layer 2 information much more rapidly than other WAN protocols Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) -- described by RFC 1661; two standards developed by the IETF; contains a protocol field to identify the network layer protocol 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 10: WAN data link protocols S imple Data Link C ontrol Pro toco l (S DLC ) an IBM-designed WAN data link protocol for System Network Architecture (SNA) environments; largely being replaced by the more versatile HDLC S erial L in e Interfa ce Proto col ( S LIP) an extremely popular WAN data link protocol for carrying IP packets; being replaced in many applications by the more versatile PPP L ink Acce ss Proce dure B alance d (L APB ) data link protocol used by X.25; has extensive error checking capabilities 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 11: WAN data link protocols 01-2004 Khoa CNTT L ink Acce ss Proce dure D -chann el (L APD ) the WAN data link protocol used for signaling and call setup on an ISDN D-channel. Data transmissions take place on the ISDN B channels L ink Acce ss Proce dure Frame ( LA P F) for Frame-Mode Bearer Services; a WAN data link protocol, similar to LAPD, used with frame relay technologies PHẠM VĂN TÍNH
Slide 12: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 WAN TECHNOLOGIES
Slide 13: WAN Technologies 01-2004 Khoa CNTT PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Most common WAN technologies grouped into : Circuit-Switched Services Packet-Switched Services Cell-Switched Services Dedicated Digital Services Analog services
Slide 14: Circuit-Switched Services • POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service) -- not a computer data service, but included for two reasons: (1) many of its technologies are part of the growing data infrastructure, (2) it is a model of an incredibly reliable, easy-to-use, wide-area communications network; typical medium is twisted-pair copper wire • Narrowband ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) -a versatile, widespread, historically important technology; was the first all-digital dial-up service; usage varies greatly from country to country; cost is moderate; maximum bandwidth is 128 kbps for the lower cost BRI (Basic Rate Interface) and about 3 Mbps for the PRI (Primary Rate Interface); usage is fairly widespread, though it varies considerably from country to country; typical medium is twisted-pair copper wire 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 15: Packet-Switched Services • X.25 -- an older technology, but still widely used; has extensive error-checking capabilities from the days when WAN links were more prone to errors, which make it reliable but limits its bandwidth; bandwidth may be as high as 2 Mbps; usage is fairly extensive; cost is moderate; typical medium is twisted-pair copper wire • Frame Relay -- a packet-switched version of Narrowband ISDN; has become an extremely popular WAN technology in its own right; more efficient than X.25, but with similar services; maximum bandwidth is 44.736 Mbps; 56kbps and 384kbps are extremely popular in the U.S.; usage is widespread; cost is moderate to low; Typical media include twisted-pair copper wire and optical fiber 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 16: Cell-Switched Services • ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) -- closely related to broadband ISDN; becoming an increasingly important WAN (and even LAN) technology; uses small, fixed length (53 byte) frames to carry data; maximum bandwidth is currently 622 Mbps, though higher speeds are being developed; typical media are twisted-pair copper wire and optical fiber; usage is widespread and increasing; cost is high • SMDS (Switched Multimegabit Data Service) -- closely related to ATM, and typically used in MANs; maximum bandwidth is 44.736 Mbps; typical media are twisted-pair copper wire and optical fiber; usage not very widespread; cost is relatively high 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 17: Dedicated Digital Services  T1, T3, E1, E3 -- the T series of services in the U.S. and the E series 01-2004 of services in Europe are extremely important WAN technologies Khoa CNTT • • • • • • • • • T1 -- 1.544 Mbps T3 -- 44.736 Mbps E1 -- 2.048 Mbps E3 -- 34.368 Mbps  xDSL (DSL for Digital Subscriber Line and x for a family of technologies) HDSL -- high-bit-rate DSL SDSL -- single-line DSL ADSL -- asymmetric DSL VDSL -- very-high-bit-rate DSL RADSL -- rate adaptive DSL PHẠM VĂN TÍNH  SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) -- a family of very high- speed physical layer technologies; designed for optical fiber, but can also run on copper cables implemented at different OC (optical carrier) levels ranging from 51.84 Mbps (OC-1) to 9,952 Mbps (OC192)
Slide 18: Analog services 01-2004 Khoa CNTT PHẠM VĂN TÍNH • Dial-up modems (switched analog) • Cable modems (shared analog) • Wireless
Slide 19: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 ROUTER BASICS
Slide 20: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 Router Components
Slide 21: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 Router Internal Components
Slide 22: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 Router Internal Components
Slide 23: Router Internal Components CPU – The Central Processing Unit (CPU) executes instructions in the operating system : system initialization, routing functions, and network interface control. The CPU is a microprocessor. Large routers may have multiple CPUs  RAM – Random-access memory (RAM) is used for routing table information, fast switching cache, running configuration, and packet queues. RAM is usually logically divided into main processor memory and shared input/output (I/O) memory. Shared I/O memory is shared among interfaces for temporary storage of packets. The contents of RAM are lost when power is removed. 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 24: Router Internal Components Flash – Flash memory is used for storage of a full Cisco IOS software image. The router normally acquires the default IOS from flash. In most routers an executable copy of the IOS is transferred to RAM during the boot process. In other routers the IOS may be run directly from flash. NVRAM – Nonvolatile random-access memory (NVRAM) is used to store the startup configuration. In either case these devices retain contents when power is removed. 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 25: Router Internal Components 01-2004 Buses  The system bus is used for communication between the CPU and the interfaces and/or expansion slots. This bus transfers the packets to and from the interfaces.  The CPU bus is used by the CPU for accessing components from router storage. This bus transfers instructions and data to or from specified memory addresses. Khoa CNTT PHẠM VĂN TÍNH ROM – Read-only memory (ROM) is used for permanently storing startup diagnostic code (ROM Monitor). The main tasks for ROM are hardware diagnostics during router bootup and loading the Cisco IOS software from flash to RAM.
Slide 26: Router Internal Components 01-2004 Interfaces – The router connections to the outside. The three types of interfaces:  Local-area network (LANs),  Wide-area network (WANs),  Console/AUX.  The LAN interfaces are usually one of several different varieties of Ethernet or Token Ring. The LAN interfaces may be a fixed configuration or modular.  The WAN interfaces include serial, ISDN. The WAN interfaces may be a fixed configuration or modular.  The Console/AUX ports are serial ports used primarily for the initial configuration of the router. They are used for terminal sessions from the communication ports on the computer or through a modem. PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 27: Connecting console interfaces 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 28: Connecting console interfaces To connect the PC to a router: 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH 1. Configure terminal emulation software (HyperTerminal) on the PC for: • The appropriate com port • 9600 baud • 8 data bits • No parity • 1 stop bit • No flow control 2. Connect the RJ-45 connector of the rollover cable to the router console port. 3. Connect the other end of the rollover cable to the RJ45 to DB-9 adapter. 4. Attach the female DB-9 adapter to a PC. Khoa CNTT
Slide 29: Connecting auxiliary (AUX) port 01-2004 PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT
Slide 30: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 Connecting WAN interfaces
Slide 31: PHẠM VĂN TÍNH Khoa CNTT 01-2004 ROUTER MODES

   
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