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6.a&p i nervous system2010 

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Slide 1: Unit III- Nervous System • Marieb, 8th Edition – Chaps 11-12; skim 14 – pages 385-483; 491-493, 510- 519 skim; skim 525539 – Book and CD-ROM • CD-ROMS in SLC Rm 1214 1
Slide 2: 2
Slide 3: 3
Slide 4: • Nervous System • I. A. Introduction – 1. Homeostasis - maintain internal life functions within a normal range – 2. Communication an important component • Detect a problem - sensory system • Correct the problem with an adjustment • Communication between two components involves the nervous system and its principles 4
Slide 5: • I. B. Organization of the Nervous System – 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) • Brain • Spinal cord – 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) • a) Somatic Nervous System – Voluntary system that controls skeletal muscles attached to limbs / bones • b) Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) – Involuntary system that controls cardiac and smooth muscles (stomach, uterus, blood vessels, etc.) and glands – Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions 5
Slide 6: • I. C. Cellular Neuroanatomy – 1. Nerve Cell = Neuron • Cell body = nucleus, Rough ER, neurotubules, Golgi, etc. • Dendrites = processes which receive input to cell body • Axon = longer process which communicates with other neurons • Terminal Branches / End Terminals = end of axon that communicates with next neuron or muscle or gland – How can we protect this long axonal process? Fig. 11.4 6
Slide 7: • I. C. Cellular Neuroanatomy – 2. Glial Cells - supportive cells of the CNS • Protective, metabolic, phagocytosis, transport nutrients & wastes between neurons & blood vessels • Schwann cells in the PNS and a glial cell in the CNS produce myelin sheath - phospholipids membranes of cell wrapped around neuronal axon, function: – protection - regeneration – Speed up rate of conduction down axon (node to node) Fig. 48-5 7
Slide 8: Fig. 11.3 8
Slide 9: Fig. 48-5 9
Slide 10: Fig. 11.5 10
Slide 11: Fig. 13-4 11
Slide 12: Fig. 48-4 and Table 11.1 12
Slide 13: • I.C. Cellular Neuroanatomy – 3. Types of Neurons • a) Sensory / Afferent Neurons - carry information about the environment (internal and external) towards the CNS • b) Motor / Efferent Neurons - carry information away from the CNS towards the periphery & effectors (muscle or gland) • c) Interneuron / Association Neurons – Only within the CNS – Connect two other neurons together, any combination 13
Slide 14: Fig. 48-1 14
Slide 15: •I. C. 4. Synapse space or gap between a neuron and a neuron or a neuron and an effector • I. C. 5. Stimulus Response Mechanism – a) Stimulus • Change in the environment – b) Response • Reaction by the organism in response to the original stimulus – c) Basis of all functioning of the nervous system, communication directed at stimulus - response mechanisms basis of behavior, learning, etc. 15
Slide 16: II. Impulse conduction • A. Introduction – 1. 1930s - at Woods Hole Mass., work on the giant squid axon - nonconducting cell • Large enough to isolate from animal and remove the cellular/axonal cytoplasm and chemically analyze 16
Slide 17: 1a. Ionic Distribution • EXTRACELLULAR • SODIUM - Na+ • HIGH INTRACELLULAR Na+ LOW • POTASSIUM - K+ • LOW K+ HIGH • CHLORIDE - Cl• HIGH ClLOW • HIGH PROTEINSSEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE 17
Slide 18: 1b. CHANGES BASED UPON NORMAL NET DIFFUSION • EXTRACELLULAR • SODIUM - Na+ • HIGH INTRACELLULAR Na+ LOW • POTASSIUM - K+ • LOW K+ HIGH • CHLORIDE - Cl• HIGH ClLOW • • HIGH PROTEINS- SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE 18
Slide 19: 1c. CHANGES BASED UPON NORMAL NET DIFFUSION OPPOSED BY ACTIVE TRANSPORT AND ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES • EXTRACELLULAR • SODIUM - Na+ • HIGH • PASSIVE • ACTIVE INTRACELLULAR Na+ LOW • POTASSIUM - K+ • LOW • PASSIVE • ACTIVE K+ HIGH • CHLORIDE - Cl• HIGH • ELECTROSTATIC ClLOW • • • NEGATIVE HIGH PROTEINS- SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE 19
Slide 20: •2. Summary of Above Ionic Behaviors • 2a. Against maintaining the neuronal ionic gradient – Passive diffusion (high to low) • 2b. Favors maintaining the neuronal ionic gradient – Active transport of the Na+ - K+ pump – Electrostatic forces due to intracellular protein negative charge • Keeps chloride out • Binds to positive K+ to keep intracellular 20
Slide 21: Figure 48.6 Negative Intracellular Electrical Charge 21
Slide 22: Fig. 48-7 22
Slide 23: QuickTimeª and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture. 23
Slide 24: • • • • II. A. 3.Terms: a) potential difference - difference in electrical charge b) polarized membrane - potential difference across membrane due to combination of membrane permeability and ionic concentrations c) resting potential - non-conducting neuron with a potential difference across the membrane equal to -70 to -90 millivolts (mV) inside compared to outside d) action potential or nerve impulse or spike a brief transient change in resting potential 24
Slide 25: II.B. Action Potential 1. Stimulating and recording setup stimulator Fig. 48.6 & 11.7 25
Slide 26: • ACTION POTENTIAL •+ 6 0 mV •• -50 -70 5 2 4 TIME msec 7 9 8 10 26 3
Slide 27: • B. Action Potential – 2. Electrode enters the axon – 3. Excitatory stimulus - below threshold – 4. Threshold stimulus - (outside) sodium gates suddenly open and the Na-K pump OFF – 5. Depolarization - sodium continues to enter past 0mV (loss of polarization) – 6. Sodium inactivation around -35mV as (inside) gate closes - too much positive charge inside – 7. Repolarization - potassium out since Na+ gates closed & K+ no longer attracted to positive protein – 8. Hyperpolarization - pump actively back on as K+ exit overshoots resting potential – 9. Equilibrium or normal resting potential – 10. Inhibitory stimulus - a hyperpolarizing stimulus, harder to excite neuron during this time period 27
Slide 28: Fig. 11.6 28 28
Slide 29: Figure 11.8 Resting Membrane Potential The concentrations of Na+ and K+ on each side of the membrane are different. + The Na concentration is higher outside the cell. Outside cell K+ (5 mM) + Na (140mM) + The K concentration is higher inside the cell. In s id e c e ll K+ (140mM) + Na (15 mM) The permeabilities of Na+ and K+ across the membrane are different. Suppose a cell has only K+ channels... K+ leakage channels + + K K K+ loss through abundant leakage channels establishes a negative membrane potential. K+ K+ + Na -K+ ATPases (pumps) maintain the concentration + and K + gradients of Na across the membrane. K+ K+ + Na Cell interior Ð mV 90 Now, letÕ add some Na+ channels to our cell... s Na+ entry through leakage channels reduces the negative membrane potential slightly. K K+ K+ K+ + Na Cell interior Ð mV 70 + Na Na+-K+ pump Finally, letÕ add a pump to compensate s for leaking ions. Na+-K+ ATPases (pumps) maintain the concentration gradients, resulting in the resting membrane potential. K+ K+ + Na Cell interior Ð mV 70 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fig. 11.8 29
Slide 30: FIG. 48.8, 11.9 30
Slide 31: FIG. 48.9 31
Slide 32: FIG. 48.9 32
Slide 33: FIG. 48.9 33
Slide 34: FIG. 48.9 34
Slide 35: FIG. 48.9 or 11.12 35
Slide 36: • 11. All - or - Nothing Phenomenon – Once threshold is reached, no variation in strength of response – How does stronger stimulus manifest itself? – Increase in frequency - not change in magnitude or height of action potential • 12. a) Absolute Refractory Period - impossible to stimulate a neuron a second time while the Na - K pump turned off, from threshold to repolarization (while K+ moving inwards) – b) Relative Refractory Period - can stimulate a neuron with a stronger stimulus, to reach threshold, while neuron in hyperpolarization 36
Slide 37: Fig. 11.13 37
Slide 38: • 13. Propagation – Signal does not die out before reaching the end of the axon, nor does it have to boosted – Each area act as stimulus for the next portion of the membrane – Depolarizing region with its positive charge moves into the adjacent negatively charges “sink” – Why doesn’t action potential go BOTH ways in the axon?? Fig. 48-10 & 11.12 38
Slide 39: Fig. 11.14 39
Slide 40: • 14. Factors influencing conduction velocity – Size of axon - larger diameter means faster conducting velocity – Temperature - higher temperature means faster conduction velocity • Cold block on axon stops conduction – Myelin sheath faster conduction than non-myelinated axon – Fig. 11.16 40
Slide 41: Figure 11.15 Action potential propagation in unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Stimulus Size of voltage (a) In abare plasma membrane (without voltage-gated channels), as on a dendrite, voltage decays because current leaks across the membrane. Voltage-gated Stimulus ion channel + and K + (b) In anunmyelinated axon, voltage-gated Na channels regenerate the action potential at each point along the axon, so voltage does not decay. Conduction is slow because movements of ions and of the gates of channel proteins take time and must occur before voltage regeneration occurs. Stimulus Node of Ranvier Myelin 1 mm sheath (c) In amyelinated axon, myelin keeps current in axons (voltage doesndecay much). Õ t APs are generated only in the nodes of Ranvier and appear to jump rapidly from node to node. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Myelin sheath 41
Slide 42: III. Synaptic Transmission • 1. Synapse = space or gap between two neurons or a neuron and an effectors (muscle or gland) – Electrical synapse - smaller gap where electrical charge (action potential) of a neuron jumps the gap to stimulate second neuron (electric eel) – Chemical synapse - larger space or gap where a chemical diffuses across synapse – Large number of synapses on a neuron’s cell body and dendrites 42
Slide 43: Fig. 48-13 43
Slide 44: 44
Slide 45: Fig. 11.16 45
Slide 46: • 2. Anatomy of a synapse – Pre-synaptic unit - end terminals of axon that comes before the synapse, has action potential invading the end terminal where synaptic vesicles are located – Synaptic vesicles contain neurotransmitters which will be released into the (chemical) synapse – Post-synaptic unit - dendrites or the cell body (possibly the axon) of the next neuron in the sequence, after the synapse, or could be an effectors 46
Slide 47: Signal travels from pre-synaptic, across synapse, to post-synaptic unit 47
Slide 48: • 3. Neurotransmitter chemicals – a) Synaptic vesicle of the pre-synaptic side are membrane bound vesicles that contain specific chemicals = neurotransmitters – b) There are dozens of different types of neurotransmitters – c) Norepinephrine (norepi/NE) • • • • Found in the CNS and the Autonomic NS Stimulates different parts of the CNS Can stimulate OR inhibit the ANS (see VI) Often similar action to Epinephrine 48
Slide 49: • 3. Neurotransmitters (continued) – d) Acetylcholine (Ach) • Found in the CNS and the Peripheral NS • Stimulates in the Somatic NS - skeletal muscles • Can stimulate OR inhibit the ANS (see VI) involuntary muscle and glands – e) Serotonin • Found only in the CNS • Inhibits a variety of neurons • Anti-depressants (Prozac) work on serotonin – f) GABA - inhibitory in the CNS 49
Slide 50: • 3. Neurotransmitters (continued) – g) Dopamine • Found primarily in the CNS • Can stimulate or inhibit different areas – h) Nitric Oxide (NO) • Gas molecule released as a local regulator peripherally • NO causes smooth muscle to relax • Work on blood vessels, smooth muscle of penis, etc. 50
Slide 51: A&P - Table 11.3 51
Slide 52: • 4. Actions at the synapse – a) pre-synaptic unit fires / depolarizes / is active as an electrical charge is propagated down the axon (remember Na+/K+ changes of part II) – b) the electrical signal invades the pre-synaptic area of the terminal branch and the electrical signal dies - Why might signal die in this area? – c) Calcium channels open and Ca++ enters the presynaptic area from the extracellular environment – d) Ca++ causes the synaptic vesicles to migrate towards the pre-synaptic membrane and fuse with the membrane = exocytosis – e) the vesicle contents - neurotransmitter - is released into the synaptic space and starts to diffuse across to the post-synaptic side 52
Slide 53: Fig. 48-12 A&P Flix 53
Slide 54: QuickTimeª and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture. 54
Slide 55: • 4. Actions at synapse (continued) – f) as chemical reaches post-synaptic membrane, it reacts with specific receptors on this side to trigger a response by the post-synaptic unit due to a change in post-synaptic membrane permeability – g) if the post-synaptic membrane is now more permeable to Na+ by opening sodium channels, • this neuron becomes excited and depolarizes – h) if the post-synaptic membrane is now more permeable to K+ or Cl• this neuron becomes inhibited and hyperpolarizes - WHY? – A single post-synaptic neuron will have different types of receptors on its membrane - like a door with several locks - each receptor can be activated by a different chemical 55
Slide 56: Fig. 48-14 or (11-19) EPSP = excitatory postsynaptic potential (depolarizing) IPSP = inhibitory postsynaptic potential (hyperpolarizing) 56
Slide 57: Fig. 11-6 57
Slide 58: • 5. Summary – a) Excitation or Depolarization • due to increase in positive charges intracellular which brings membrane potential towards threshold which allows sodium gates to open and neuron fires – b) Inhibition or Hyperpolarization • Due to an increase in negative charges intracellular or positive charges leaving (K+) which brings the membrane potential away from threshold, making it HARDER to fire this neuron – c) How do we turn off the neurotransmitter? 58
Slide 59: • 5d) As long as neurotransmitter is present in the synapse, it will keep reacting with postsynaptic receptors and keep the gates/channels open or closed and the reaction continues. – 1. Norepinephrine and Epinephrine are transported AWAY from synapse or transported back into the pre-synaptic unit to be recycles – 2. Acetylcholine has specific enzyme in the synapse - Acetylcholinesterase - which cleaves the Ach into Acetyl plus Choline to be recycled 59
Slide 60: • 6. Summation and Integration – Number of excitatory vs. inhibitory synaptic inputs determine post-synaptic response – Time course of inputs – Examples • Car - brake and gas pedal • Preying Mantis 60
Slide 61: • 7. Effect of Drugs on Synaptic Activity – a) Insecticide or nerve gas • What is behavior of animal exposed to this poison? • Block the action the enzyme which destroys Ach • Acetylcholinesterase = rigidity of muscles – b) Curare • Derived from plants • Blocks receptors on skeletal muscle • Prevents Ach from working - muscle flaccid/relaxed – c) Stimulants / Amphetamines • • • • Mimic action of Norepi in brain Stimulate release of Norepi in brain Dependency What over counter pill a stimulant, but not used to keep you awake? 61
Slide 62: • 7. Drugs (continued) – d) Depressants / Anesthetics • • • • Inhibit many centers in the brain Base of brain and higher up Overdose = depresses respiratory centers Alcohol? – e) LSD / Hallucinogenic Drugs • Normally - there is inhibition between the different sensory inputs • Smell goes to one place, sight another region • These drugs cause overspill of one input to different areas of the brain, so you see a sound, taste a light • Yellow Submarine experiment 62
Slide 63: 63
Slide 64: IV. Spinal cord A. Definitions • 1. Grey Matter - collection of neuron cell bodies and dendrites within the CNS • 2. White Matter - collection of myleinated axons within the CNS • 3. Nucleus - a cluster or collection of related neurons within the CNS • 4. Ganglion - a collection of related neuron cell bodies outside the CNS, in the periphery • 5. Interneuron or Association neuron - connecting neuron within the CNS 64
Slide 65: Fig. 12.31/33 65
Slide 66: • 6. Ascending tracts - related sensory axons within the white matter of the CNS • 7. Descending tracts - related motor axons within the white matter of the CNS • 8. Meninges - three membranes that cover the entire CNS (brain and spinal cord) – Dura Mata - tough, fibrous outer membrane that protects – Arachnoid membrane - middle layer that supports the blood vessels in a sub-arachnoid space (web like appearance) – Pia Mata - inner most membrane, (gentle) tissue paper thin but helps shape CNS, which normally has a jelllike consistency 66
Slide 67: Fig. 12.24 67
Slide 68: • 9. Cerebral Spinal Fluid - CSF – a) Formed in ventricles of brain as a filtrate of blood, CSF circulates through ventricles and central canal • Stabilize extracellular environment • Tight junctions between capillary cells plus glial cells • Selective, not absolute permeability - varies in different parts of the brain (hypothalamus, vomit center) – b) Ventricles - fluid-filled spaces of brain (large lateral, 3rd, 4th ventricles) – c) CSF carries nutrients, hormones, white blood cells and acts as shock absorber – d) After circulating in the CNS, CSF returns to veins on the surface of the brain, carrying wastes 68
Slide 69: Fig. 12.26 69
Slide 70: Fig. 12.26b 70
Slide 71: • 9. CSF (continued) – e) Meningitis - inflammation of the meninges, bacterial or viral, can spread to the nervous tissue of the CNS – f) Encephalitis - brain inflammation – g) Hydrocephalus - water on the brain - CSF forms normally, but there is an obstruction to flow and it accumulates in ventricles • New born - enlarged head since skull bones not fused • Adult - compresses blood vessels and crushes soft nervous tissue • Remove obstruction or insert shunt to drain CSF 71
Slide 72: • 10. Spinal Puncture – Removal of CSF below L1 where spinal cord has ended – Nerves exiting at this point drift away from needle – Fluid removed from subarachnoid space and analyzed – Look for infection, excessive white blood cells, proteins, removal of hydrostatic pressure on the CNS 72
Slide 73: IV. B. Spinal cord anatomy • 1. Spinal cord runs from base of brain to L1 segment with enlargements in cervical and lumbar areas for serving arms and legs and 31 pairs of mixed spinal nerves • 2. Dermatome - area of skin that has sensory innervations from a specific spinal nerve, there is some overlap • 3. Spinal cord cross-section: Identify – Deeper anterior/ventral median fissure – Shallow posterior/dorsal median sulcus – Central canal in middle of grey matter – Surrounding white matter – Dorsal and ventral horns connecting to a spinal nerve 73
Slide 74: Fig. 48-16 74
Slide 75: Fig. 13.12 75
Slide 76: IV. B. Spinal Cord anatomy (continued) • 4. Trace the following pathway: (use diagram in notes) – Sensory receptor or dendrites (stimulus) – Myelinated dendrite passes through spinal nerve – Travels up dorsal root – Dendrite finds its own sensory cell body in dorsal root ganglion – Central process/axon exits ganglion and travels in dorsal root to spinal cord – Enters dorsal horn proper of grey matter and synapses with an interneuron – Interneuron sends branch to brain AND branch to ventral area of grey matter and – Synapses with motor cell body in ventral horn – Motor axon exits spinal cord via ventral root and enters same spinal nerve (mixed) – Motor axon innervates an effector and a response occurs 76
Slide 77: • 5. There are synapses – One between incoming sensory axon and dendrite/cell body of interneuron – Second between the terminal branch of the interneuron and the dendrite/cell body of the motor neuron – Third between the motor terminal branch and the effector (neuromuscular junction) – Why is there not a synapse in the dorsal root ganglion? • 6. Injections: – Epidural - outside the dura mater and outside the spinal cord (more sensory in effect) – Subdural - into the CSF area of the middle arachnoid membrane and penetrates the spinal cord (both sensory and motor in its effects) 77
Slide 78: IV. C. Spinal Cord Reflexes • 1. Reflex - innate, automatic response to a given stimulus • 2. Reflex arc - functional unit of the stimulus-response mechanism, highly specific neural pathway involving above (B.4.) • 3. Two types of reflexes – Inborn / inherited – Learned / acquired / conditioned 78
Slide 79: Figure 11.23 A simple reflex arc. Stimulus 1 Receptor 2 Sensory neuron 3 Integration center 4 Motor neuron 5 Effector Response Interneuron Spinal cord (CNS) Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. 79
Slide 80: Fig. 48-3& A&P Flix 80
Slide 81: Fig.13.18 81
Slide 82: • 4. Inborn or inherited or 2 neuron reflex – Pupillary eye reflex to light, heart rate – Patellar knee reflex, respiration – 2 neuron reflex - sensory synapses directly with motor output, monosynaptic – No interneuron - no involvement of brain – No conscious control over response • 5. Learned or conditioned or polysynaptic or 3 neuron reflex – Finger on hot stove – 3 neurons - sensory, interneuron, motor, multisynaptic – Interneuron involves the brain which adds a conscious control over the motor response – Can you leave your finger on a hot stove for 30 seconds? 82
Slide 83: • 6. Crossed Reflex – Interneuron crosses to opposite side of the spinal cord as well – Reflex excites extensor on one side and flexor on the other side – Think of balancing on see-saw or stepping on a sharp tack Fig. 13.19 83
Slide 84: V. BRAIN Figs. 12.1/2 84
Slide 85: V. Brain • A. Cerebrum or Cerebral Hemispheres – 1. Mammals - grows over other, older parts of the brain, assumed functions or control over older portions • Furrows and convolutions of surface to increase surface area of gray matter • White matter of cortex = ascending and descending tracts plus interneurons within cortex • Left - Right Hemispheres connected via the Corpus Callosum band of connecting interneuron axons • Ventricles and CSF • Function of the left brain?? Anatomical control?? • Function of the right brain?? Anatomical control?? • Lobes = frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal 85
Slide 86: Fig. 12.5 86
Slide 87: Fig. 12.4 87
Slide 88: Fig. 12.10 88
Slide 89: • Figs. 12.6 89
Slide 90: Fig. 48-24 90
Slide 91: Fig. 28-25 or 12.9 91
Slide 92: • A. Cerebrum (continued) – 2. Function and locations • Controls learned behavior • Highest reflection of sensory input (parietal) – Vision - occipital – Hearing - temporal – Olfaction - temporal • • • • • • Highest origin of motor output (frontal) Integrative functions for both Intelligence Memory Language and speech (frontal & temporal) Emotions (see limbic system) 92
Slide 93: Fig. 12.8 93
Slide 94: Fig. 12.8 94
Slide 95: Fig. 28-20 95
Slide 96: Figure 12.18 The limbic system. Septum pellucidum Diencephalic structures of the limbic system ¥ Anterior thalamic nuclei (flanking 3rd ventricle) ¥ Hypothalamus ¥ Mammillary body Corpus callosum Fiber tracts connecting limbic system structures ¥ Fornix ¥ Anteriorcommissure Cerebral structures of the limbic system ¥ Cingulate gyrus ¥ Septal nuclei ¥ Amygdala ¥ Hippocampus ¥ Dentate gyrus ¥ Parahippocampal gyrus Olfactory bulb Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fig. 28-27 or 12.18 96
Slide 97: • A. Cerebrum (continued) – 3. Cut corpus callosum = split brain – 4. Limbic System • Emotion due to interactions with sensory input and association centers • Memory - Hippocampus • Frontal lobotomy – 5. Basal Ganglia • • • • Conscious and unconscious movements Movement sequencing Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases Dopamine involvement (Awakenings) 97
Slide 98: Fig. 12.11b Basal Ganglia 98
Slide 99: Fig. 12.17 99
Slide 100: • B. Cerebellum – 1. Under cortex, above medulla – 2. Convoluted surface with internal axons – 3. Communicates with many other areas (F4.) • Sensory and motor areas – 4. Monitors and corrects motor activities • Posture • Muscle coordination • Error control compares intention with performance 100
Slide 101: Fig. 12.12 101
Slide 102: Fig. 12.13 102
Slide 103: • C. Thalamus – 1. Collection of nuclei bordering the third ventricle – 2. Communicates with other areas (see F4 below) – 3. Relay for sensory input to the cerebrum – 4. Conscious recognition • D. Hypothalamus – 1. Below the thalamus, above the pituitary gland – 2. Communicates with other areas (see F4 below) – 3. Psychosomatic disorders ?? • Endocrine functions - produces different hormones that control the pituitary and other body organs and functions – 4. Nuclei controlling Autonomic Functions • Food intake Fluid balance • Temperature regulation Sex Drive • Pleasure - Pain 103
Slide 104: • E. Pons – 1. Posterior to the hypothalamus, part of the Brain Stem – 2. Communicates with other areas (F.) – 3. Influences other breathing centers of brain • F. Medulla (oblongata) – 1. Part of the Brain Stem, connects the brain to the spinal cord – 2. Conduction pathway for incoming sensory axons and outgoing motor axons – 3. Nuclei that control Vital Reflexes • Cardiac • Swallow Respiratory centers Cough Vomit centers – 4. Origin of the Reticular formation 104
Slide 105: Fig. 12.16a/b 105
Slide 106: Fig. 12.16c 106
Slide 107: Fig. 28-21 or 12.19 107
Slide 108: F. Medulla 4. Reticular formation (continued) – Ability to facilitate or inhibit incoming sensory and outgoing motor activities • Aids in ignoring certain stimuli as brain processes other inputs – Responsible for normal arousal of the higher centers of brain – Patient in coma – Muscle jerk as one falls asleep • Response??? • G. EEG or Brain Waves – External detection of depolarizations and hyperpolarizations over brain – Alpha = quiet rest Beta = active – Theta = stress Delta = sleep 108
Slide 109: Fig. 48-22 Fig. 12.20 109
Slide 110: Fig. 13.5 110
Slide 111: • H. Cranial Nerves – – – – 1. 12 pairs exiting/entering from the brainstem 2. Olfactory (#1) - sensory 3. Optic (#2) - sensory to optic chiasm 4. Trigeminal (#5) - mixed - chewing and facial sensations – 5. Vagus (#10) - mixed from.to all over body including cardiac, visceral and skeletal • I. Neural Disorders – 1. Polio - viral degeneration of ventral horn motor cell bodies of spinal cord – 2. Cerebral palsy - voluntary muscles are poorly controlled due to brain damage during fetal 111 development or birth (oxygen deprivation)
Slide 112: • I. Disorders (continued) – 3. Parkinson’s Disease - degeneration of dopamine producing cells of the substantia nigra, which target Basal Ganglia cells of the inner cerebrum • Tremors • Slow in initiating and executing voluntary motion • L-dopa compounds, fetal tissue, genetically engineered adult cells – 4. Multiple Sclerosis - autoimmune loss of myelin from motor and sensory neurons causes short-circuiting of signals • Since axon healthy, variable remissions occur 112
Slide 113: • 5. Alzheimer’s Disease - progressive degeneration of the brain resulting in dementia (genetic factors) – Ach problems – Structural changes in cerebrum and hippocampus – Protein bound to beta amyloid protein plus neurofibrillar tangles in cell body • 6. Stroke or CVA - blockage of blood circulation to brain and brain tissue dies – Caused by clot, compression by hemorrhaging or edema – Atherosclerosis - narrowing of blood vessel by deposits 113
Slide 114: VI. Autonomic Nervous System • 1. Peripheral Nervous system – Somatic NS – Autonomic NS - involuntary motor system that connects to cardiac and smooth muscles and glands • 2. Two divisions of the ANS – Parasympathetic NS – Sympathetic NS • 3. Dual Innervations - both parasympathetic and sympathetic systems connect to the same effectors – Heart Intestine Salivary glands etc. – Why have two systems to same organs? 114
Slide 115: Fig. 14.2 115
Slide 116: Fig. 14.3 116
Slide 117: • 4. Antagonist Functions of the 2 ANS divisions – One system excites and the other system inhibits • Organ • Heart • • • • • Smooth muscle Of Digestive System 117 Parasympathetic Sympathetic
Slide 118: Organ Parasympathetic Sympathetic Heart (cardiac muscle) Inhibits Heart Rate & Strength of beat Increases HR & Strength of beat Smooth Muscle of Digestive System Stimulates Peristalsis smooth rhythmic contraction of gut Inhibits Peristalsis 118
Slide 119: • 5. Properties of Parasympathetic NS – a) 80% of all parasympathetic activity from brain is associated with the Vagus Nerve (10th cranial nerve), all parasympathetic nerves originate from the top or bottom of the spinal cord – b) main neurotransmitter released is Acetylcholine – c) main functions: conserve or restore energy levels in the body • Appetite related • Digestion • excretion 119
Slide 120: Figs. 14.4/6 120
Slide 121: • 6. Properties of Sympathetic NS – a) no one single nerve, but nerves originate from the middle of the spinal cord – b) main neurotransmitter released is Norepinephrine plus these nerves also release hormones of the adrenal gland to prolong the actions of the sympathetics – c) main function: utilize energy • Fight or Flight Syndrome • Stress Related - opposite of homeostasis – d) too much stress causes imbalance between these two systems resulting in changes in blood pressure, ulcers, heart arrhythmias, etc. – e) reduce stress in your life - don’t let Biology get to you! 121
Slide 122: Figure 14.9 Levels of ANS control. Communication at subconscious level Levels of ANS Control Cerebral cortex (frontal lobe) Limbic system (emotional input) Hypothalamus Overall integration of ANS, the boss Brain stem (reticular formation, etc.) Regulation of pupil size, respiration, heart, blood pressure, swallowing, etc. Spinal cord Urination, defecation, erection, and ejaculation reflexes Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Fig. 14.9 122
Slide 123: THANKS FOR A GREAT SEMESTER 123

   
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