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Feedback from Making CSI Matter 2010 breakaway sessions 

 

 
 
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Slide 1: SUMMARY OUTPUT FROM BREAKAWAY ENGAGEMENT SESSIONS: TRIALOGUE ‘MAKING CSI MATTER CONFERENCE’ Introduction The purpose of this document is to summarise the feedback from the breakaway sessions conducted at the ‘Making CSI Matter’ Conference. A total of 6 breakaway sessions were conducted over the course of two days. Conference delegates chose the topics they were interested in, and were required to work in groups to formulate responses to a series of questions relating to a particular theme or topic. The themes for the sessions were: TOPIC/THEME OF BREAKAWAY* SESSION – EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF  CSI WITHIN FORMAL SCHOOLING SESSION ‐ THE RATIONALE AND  BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH CSI  SUPPORT FOR SPORTS, ARTS & CULTURE SESSION ‐ EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF  CSI FOR ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT SESSION ‐ THE INTERFACE BETWEEN CSI  AND THE DINOKENG SCENARIOS SESSION‐ APPLICATIONS AND  PARTNERSHIPS IN TECHNOLOGY FOR  DEVELOPMENT  SESSION ‐ INTERVENTIONS AND  PARTNERSHIPS IN COMMUNITY AND  RURAL DEVELOPMENT DATE OF BREAKAWAY Day 1: Tuesday 4 May 2010 Day 2: Wednesday 5 May 2010 *Please note that text in this column is hyperlinked to the relevant page; press ‘Ctrl+click’ The breakaway sessions were highly interactive and resulted in lively debate, as well as presenting opportunities for networking and knowledge sharing. The outputs of the 6 sessions are presented in the remainder of this document. 1
Slide 2: DAY ONE: TUESDAY 4 MAY 2010 SESSION ‐ THE RATIONALE AND BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH CSI  SUPPORT FOR SPORTS, ARTS & CULTURE  Question 1. Why should corporates support sports and arts & culture given South Africa’s other pressing developmental needs? Delegate responses: MEMORABLE QUOTES • • • • ‘Healthy bodies, healthy minds, healthy belonging!’ ‘diversity is strength’ • • • • • We live in a world where we appreciate beauty because it connects us with our humanity Sports, arts and culture reflect our heritage – the stories of where we come from need to be told o The Arts played a key role in communicating messages during the Struggle Sports, arts and culture provide are complementary and allow for a holistic education – employers look for well-rounded people, not just academics The three sectors also create avenues to develop people’s potential in different ways The corporate world is not removed from developments in arts and culture - ‘Boardrooms have art!’ Sports, arts and culture represent creative action: learning to build something instead of destroying Corporate support at different levels is required to prevent the commodification of sports and arts because it’s about having fun 2
Slide 3: Question 2. To what degree should CSI interventions in sports development and arts & culture work in partnership with government? Can the interventions be successfully introduced and expanded without government involvement or is government endorsement and participation a necessity from the outset? Extent of government involvement • From a funding and endorsement point of view, government involvement is sometimes useful but not essential – in some instances it can even be detrimental For example, party politics can be crude and interfere with how funding is unlocked – different actors in the same political party, or actors from competing political parties can try to block each other, and create technicalities in the hand-over process It is not always understood what arts & culture are about – especially the processes and ‘behind the scenes’ support and work that is required Government tends to focus on events and other visible or tangible outputs Government funding and support comes with strings – they work to templates The challenge for government is how to keep people on board without stifling creativity too Government officials are not always reliable – they have been known to lose forms and other official documents, and to block the phone numbers of people requesting assistance to avoid having to deal with them The desirability of government involvement is • • • • • • Stage at which government should become involved • Government entities are often ‘silent partners’ who only come to life for ‘public moments’ (e.g. cutting the ribbon, delivering a speech, branding the event) without being part of the developmental process This selective participation is quite offensive! • A conversation needs to happen about what arts & culture, sports can bring to government and vice versa • Government-driven projects in the sports, arts and culture space also require support from corporates 3
Slide 4: Question 3. Can and should sports and arts & culture interventions be used to instill life skills (eg. ethical and professional values) in individual participants? If so, what is required to make this happen? Delegate responses: Role of sports, arts and culture in instilling life skills • Yes they can and they should – sports, arts and culture instill life skills at the physical, social, and emotional levels. Specific examples include: teamwork, communication, goal-setting, decision-making, perseverance, share, respect for others, accepting differences, developing attention spans, motor skills, accepting victory and defeat, learning what is socially acceptable behavior, bonding, self-identity • If there were no sports, arts and culture social problems would be worse than they currently are – high crime levels, more substance dependency, more teenage pregnancy, more child-headed households These kinds of activities usually happen after school, possibly due to a lack of recreational facilities, and lack of an entrenched value system It does not matter whether you are a ‘have’ or ‘have not’ - these problems exist everywhere, and sports, arts and culture can play a positive role in mitigating them • Who would we be targeting with sports, arts and culture initiatives? Youth aged between18 years and 35 years, particularly those who are unemployed to raise awareness of other opportunities School-going youths Children in the early childhood development (ECD stage) What is required? • Shift in mindsets - arts & crafts are not ‘by the way’ Also, corporate sponsorships should not just be about giving money or equipment, but should aim to have a deeper developmental impact that moulds individuals • Need to re-introduce PT/PE and arts (e.g. singing period) in school curricula, Need specialists e.g. sports and arts administrators, life skills coaches – should be seen as a career Lobby government • Collective action Form partnerships with community leaders and identify role-models in schools and the wider community Partnerships between the school, NGOs/CBOs, government, and parents Partnerships between government and business to build fields and pools – also need budget to maintain facilities 4
Slide 5: Partnerships between schools Question 4. Is there benefit in reducing the number of types of interventions in order to achieve economies of scale (i.e. number of sporting disciplines, types of arts & culture intervention)? What are the arguments for having fewer intervention types versus many different types of intervention? This question was not addressed in the breakaway session. Question 5. How can one scale up sports and arts & culture interventions? What role should CSI departments, government or civil society play in achieving widespread participation? Delegate responses: • Holistic learning, encourages leadership skills • Not alternate to academic, about enhancing those studies • The fact that we have no resources doesn’t mean we can’t have sports – don’t need to have fancy kit to play games or make art • Disability representation at table – little support • Manipulate the system – eg. If arts and education or environment, we feel you need to angle it. Sad, but that’s how you have to do it • Sanlam (?) Provides arts materials to schools – learners then participate in competition • Hong kong project – mobile team of specialists traveling to schools {perfect opportunity for enterprise development} • The importance of working with experts in the community • Library of resources with music instruments, art supplies, equipment that can be loaned out • Must be long-term intervention Wider issues raised by delegates – ‘food for thought’ going forward • What can be done to raise the profile of sports, arts and culture generally? • How can enterprise development within bring sports, arts & culture be promoted? • The arts & culture sector is broader than just the performing arts o At the same time, there is a government tendency to focus on ‘culture’ • Which companies are supporting sports? Are they doing so through their CSI departments, or through their marketing departments? • Many public and private sponsors confuse CSI for sports, arts and culture with branding and marketing opportunities – they don’t understand the difference • How does one migrate from marketing to true social development? RETURN TO TABLE 5
Slide 6: SESSION – EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF CSI WITHIN FORMAL  SCHOOLING  Question 1. What are the advantages and constraints in adopting the following approaches to investment in formal schooling? • Whole school development at a local / site level (governance, educator, learner and infrastructure interventions at one or more schools) • A niched approach across multiple schools (e.g. Maths and Science, supplementary schooling, teacher training) • Systemic interventions (e.g. curriculum design, capacity building for DoE employees, research and advocacy at a national level etc.) Is any one of these approaches more suitable for corporate CSI programmes? Why or in what way? Delegate responses: Whole school development Advantages • Systemic whole school development (WSD) should be the nucleus of community development e.g. the Penreach WSD programme • • • Strengths in being able to collaborate with other sponsors and create a shared vision Opportunity to align CSI interventions in this space with the core business of the sponsoring entity It is a mechanism for strengthening community democracy and participation Constraints • Without effective leadership, projects for WSD could fail • • Lack of sustainability caused by corporates wanting to do everything, thus encouraging communities to be dependent on them Too many offers/proposals for WSD programmes are being made to the Department of Education without a proven track record of effectiveness to back them up 6
Slide 7: Systemic interventions • Systemic interventions afford one the opportunity to work from ECD all the way to high school level (with benefits such as continuity and consistency for individual learners) • • However, clarity is required on what would qualify as a systemic intervention Government intention and policies are needed to effect systemic change e.g. libraries in all schools, or teacher evaluation – CSI can then play a supporting role One of the challenges of a systemic approach is that you have to engage with trade unions around issues around qualifications and performance • Question 2. Delivery of formal schooling is the responsibility of government. How can we ensure that corporate contributions effectively support, and do not attempt to replace, the efforts of the Department of Education? • • CSI should be strategic in deciding how to both support and challenge government as the situation requires CSI practitioners should choose their specialist partners carefully to ensure mutual learning and capacity building to improve overall CSI for education Corporates should identify good practice that works on the ground and then support government in up-scaling it Corporate contributions can address two key gaps in formal schooling: school governance and early childhood development (ECD) There is existing collaboration between role players from different sectors (government, business, NPOs) but it is not strategic or coordinated. There is potential to extract more value from these relationships Barriers to collaboration include brand issues and legislation • Can you create a mechanism which makes it possible both to collaborate and compete? 7 • • •
Slide 8: This requires a neutral platform (such as the National Business Initiative) where a sense of common purpose and solid evidence base can create a different discourse beyond narrow interests; or where it is possible to pursue interests aligned with national interests. Question 3. What collaborative mechanisms currently exist for corporate involvement in formal schooling? How could they be improved? What, if any, other initiatives could be introduced to ensure greater collaboration between corporates? Delegate responses: • People talk about collaborating but corporate lack the internal resources to do the research on how to collaborate and on what issues The leadership arrangements for CSI are sometimes an obstacle to collaboration – the CSI function is often regarded as peripheral and is staffed by relatively junior people Senior management needs to drive collaborative CSI • Another obstacle to collaboration is that corporates are territorial about projects – an organisational mechanism is needed to bridge the gap (e.g. joint teams/committees) There is a need for professional associations where members can combine CSI funding across focus areas for better impact e.g. banking sector and financial services sector This may include the development of a website where projects can be profiled Question 4. There is some evidence to suggest that interventions are only really effective when targeted at those schools already achieving a degree of functionality. This implies that many schools will remain marginalised. What (if anything) does this mean for CSI programmes? Delegate responses: • Functionality can be defined in terms of school governance, discipline and results 8 • •
Slide 9: • • • Government’s responsibility is to work with all schools across the board, whereas most corporates tend to pick the cream of the crop The CDE and Zenex studies suggest that interventions work better in functional schools, but the dilemma is what do you do with all the rest – this is a difficult ethical question The value of working with low-performing schools is that there is a sense of working with the most marginalised and making a valuable contribution There are enormously important lessons to be learned there, and applied more broadly Question 5. There is a great deal of knowledge and research on schooling interventions. How can we ensure this knowledge base is effectively applied by corporates and NGOs when undertaking projects? What should corporates and NGOs be doing to ensure lessons are shared and applied? Delegate responses: • Create a database on which to capture best practices and make sure it is available online (e.g. on a dedicated website) An example of database is Bridge – the portal has a research component and a social network forum to create communities of practice (www.bridge.org.za) The HSRC has a publication on successful schooling practice which can form part of the body of knowledge on the website • However, there should be an awareness that not everyone has internet access and is familiar with certain technologies, limiting their ability to contribute to and learn from the database It is important to ensure that the information collected is acted on and used constructively - it is the responsibility of corporates to conduct baseline studies to ensure interventions address identified needs • RETURN TO TABLE 9
Slide 10: SESSION ‐ EFFECTIVE APPLICATION OF CSI FOR ENTERPRISE  DEVELOPMENT  Question 1. How should enterprise development as undertaken by the CSI department differ from that of the ED business function? Should these initiatives be linked in any way? Delagate responses: Enterprise development for CSI versus business function • Whether or not ED can be undertaken by the CSI department will depend on: The term of the engagement The scale of operations The level of risk involved The issue of replicability and competition The scale of sustainability (i.e. not every NGO/project can ever reach full sustainability) Linkages • CSI can be used to strategically identify community-based projects that have the potential to be developed into full-scale ED projects in time – therefore CSI should scan projects to identify those that can be formally developed to become part of the business supply chain (even if not immediately, but eventually) Question 2. Are there any particular models of enterprise development as undertaken by CSI departments that stand out as successful and replicable? Delagate responses: • CSI projects tend to be successful when they: Identify competent individuals and organisations Ensure that the entrepreneurs demonstrate commitment by having ‘skin in the game’ Provide skills and enterprise training Link the enterprise (or aim to eventually link the enterprise) into the corporate supply chain or markets Identify stakeholders or gatekeepers who are already in the game Are based on sufficient research to establish needs and skills Provide finance Provide ongoing support 10
Slide 11: Identify capable individuals/businesses; then provide research support and provide skills training; then provide support for enterprise start-up; then link it into the corporate supply chain. Question 3. How should corporates ‘source’ enterprises to support through CSI? Should corporates focus on a particular type of enterprise or a particular geographic area? Delagate responses: Sourcing of enterprises • Always some general criteria that a corporate must consider, together with specific criteria per company • There should be a logical match between the enterprise and the corporate value chain or services • Identify small businesses/suppliers (with growth potential) who can meet the company’s business needs and are aligned with the company’s business objectives • Enterprises with a track record and reputation are preferable • Source projects that can present strong business plans (and can demonstrate hunger and heart) • A champion must be identified who has the hunger and the heart, and supported by a strong operational team Corporate focus • It makes sense to invest where the corporate has its operations, but there is no hard and fast rule in this regard • Involvement in local communities depends on the local communities’ specific expectations • Whether to get involved in the company’s local geographical area might also depend on responsibility to the natural environment (and, therefore, whether it is important to support ED projects aligned to environmental protection/rehabilitation) 11
Slide 12: Question 4. Grassroots enterprise development is complicated by the variety of conditions on which successful enterprise development depends. Could you develop a list of ‘what not to do’ to reduce the chance of failure, and a list of ‘what must be done’ to improve prospects of success. Delagate responses: What must be done for successful enterprise development • Get proper buy-in from community by involving CBOs, NGOs and community leaders • Understand the background culture of the community you are investing in and build on what already exists (e.g. indigenous knowledge) • Do a needs analysis • Match corporate priorities with those of the community • Register the business as soon as possible • Consider the ED investment as a long-term investment (treat it as a marathon and not a sprint) • Aim to see entrepreneurs as full partners • Adopt a phased approach that eventually will lead to a win-win situation • Design a sustainable model and offer follow-up training • Make sure that you provide help with accessing markets • Build on what already exists • Stick to your core principles • Develop monitoring and evaluation tools to monitor progress • Interventions should be limited to market and business opportunities • Provide mentorship • Make sure you have a long-term exit strategy and plan • Be careful in giving loans to emerging enterprises – do not allow any loans to drag the business down What not to do for enterprise development Corporates must not: • Take a ‘hit and run’ approach (i.e. they should avoid once-off projects) • Dump money – rather, they should aim to get directly involved • Try to dictate solutions (don’t tell the community what to do) • Impose external ‘best practice’ • Try to fulfill a saviour role or try to be the provider of everything • Assume anything (especially when it comes to the entrepreneurs’ business knowledge). Therefore, teach the full foundation of technical, business and life skills, or find people who can do so on your behalf. • Make enterprises dependent and unable to function on their own (but on the other hand, do not assume that they can ‘fly’ or be self-sustaining too soon) 12
Slide 13: Question 5. For corporates wanting to invest in enterprise development through their CSI programmes, who are the long term / strategic partners that should be engaged (from government, civil society etc.)? What value would such partnerships potentially add? What would the potential complications be in establishing such partnerships? Delagate responses: Long term/strategic partners The best partners differ, depending on the specific values of the partnership – partners who can contribute the following would be valuable: • Access to finance – corporates should provide what seed capital they can initially, and then help the entrepreneur to access further finding from the likes of banks or CIDA or DTI • Mentorship – this is a competency that should ideally be provided by corporates, as well as academics and successful entrepreneurs • Incubation – this is a particular civil society competency, supported by govt and corporates • Access to market opportunities – enterprises should be linked to services that the corporate needs, and market opportunities should therefore be provided by corporates and govt • Passion / Inspiration – no specific partner, but perhaps inspirational individuals can be accessed to inspire passion • Marketing – a corporate competency • Skills development (technical and business and personal) – SITAs, educational institutions and corporates • Infrastructure – Corporates can provide this • International best practice – academics can provide leading thinking • Networks – should come from the corporate sector Other partners: Also media, consumers and the community Value of partnerships • Access to finance • Mentorship • Incubation • Access to market opportunities • Passion • Marketing • Skills development • Infrastructure • International best practice 13
Slide 14: • Networks • Oversight and management • Momentum Potential complications • Competing agendas between the partners (i.e. lack of alignment) • Disruptions caused by change of leadership within any of the partners (therefore need to identify the rules of engagement up front in order to ensure continuity) • Inability of specific partners to deliver • Time limitations on the part of certain partners • The extent to which partners can be trusted to do that which they have agreed to do • Lack of professionalism on the part of certain partners • Lack of experience on the part of certain partners • Inability of the partners to ensure/guarantee long term sustainability • If you leave certain potential partners out, they may sabotage the project Question 6. How does one measure success in this field, and over what period of time? Is there a clear way in which the company can evaluate its own contribution, bearing in mind that there are many external factors that will determine the success or failure of enterprises? Delagate responses: How to measure success • Ensure that success is evaluated in terms of social impact, financial impact, and sustainability • Need to evaluate each project individually, because the variables differ • Consider specific outcomes (and not just profit) Key success factors might include: • The number of enterprises established • The number of people these enterprises employ (and impact on employees’ families) • The number of jobs or beneficiaries supported • Business turnover/profit declared by the enterprise • Ability of the enterprise to show innovation and diversification • The success of mentorship programmes • The extent to which the ED model is replicable • The links that the ED programme has to and with the community/suppliers/networks, etc 14
Slide 15: • Mentoring from the company is crucial Period of time to measure success • Timeframe for measuring success of an enterprise: 3-5 years • Measurement should be ongoing from the project’s inception • A longitudinal study is necessary • What gets measured in Year 1 is not the same as what gets measured in Year 5 External factors that may hinder success of the enterprise development project • The economy • Changing legislation • Politics • Climate and weather (especially in the case of food/agricultural projects and enterprises) • Consumer trends • Load shedding RETURN TO TABLE 15
Slide 16: DAY TWO: WEDNESDAY 5 MAY 2010 SESSION ‐ THE INTERFACE BETWEEN CSI AND THE DINOKENG  SCENARIOS  Question 1. What can government do to improve levels of collaboration between parties and achieve the ‘walk together’ scenario for CSI? Delegate responses: • South Africa has an enabling legislative and policy environment, but implementation is a problem e.g. there is a lack of on the ground co-ordination for the national plan for ECD • At a local level partnerships work, but at a district and provincial level there are no co-ordinating mechanisms • Government needs to be more organised (its responsibility is to set up structures to improve engagement at all levels for development focus areas) • There should be a shift in attitude by government towards seeing the CSI sector as a partner • There is a need to educate ward counsellors about roles and responsibilities and communities about their rights Question 2. What can the CSI sector do to improve levels of collaboration between parties and achieve the ‘walk together’ scenario for CSI? Delegate responses: Obstacles to collaboration In essence, the CSI sector wants to walk together but there are many obstacles. They include: • Issues around prioritising CSI in the corporate environment • Limited appreciation of the complexity of development and the importance of multiyear interventions - a lot of time and energy is wasted on renegotiating partnerships every year • Agreeing who defines the terms and language in a partnership • The power dynamic between people with money and people without • Knowing who does what, and how to get in touch - need for research around donors and NGOs 16
Slide 17: How to improve collaboration • Need to get away from blame game • Adopt a bottom-up approach to collaboration, where the CSI practitioner plays a mediating role (understanding and communicating what is happening at all levels • Create a platform for government and civil society to come together, but there should be willingness from government to engage Build a collective lobby between civil society and business • Real need for improved M& E – this applies to tools but also to collaborative processes • Incentivise community participation in processes e.g. attending conferences and forums • Mindset should be about learning from mistakes rather than being scared of failure This can contribute to replicating and upscaling projects • Rethink how we are engaging and move beyond ego and competition – focus on values Need to move beyond branding • Change focus from projects to long-term values Question 3. What can civil society do to improve levels of collaboration between parties and achieve the ‘walk together’ scenario for CSI? Delegate responses: • Civil society coalitions to build consensus, a common voice and avoid duplication of efforts The NPO sector needs to collaborate with other NPOs as well as with government and corporate at community, regional and national level Need better leadership within civil society: organised NPO sector which can take a more unified agenda (per issue) to government and lobby more effectively Collaboration at decision-making level to come up with a strategic plan for a community or a region e.g. NGOs sitting on boards There are different cultures between different sectors – it is important to find common ground Community-based forums should be going to municipalities Funders could be approached with a unified request e.g. common platforms, co-involvement, co-design of plans of action This would require an awareness campaign targeted at communities and other NPOs 17
Slide 18: • • The problem lies with civil society – we need to be able to understand and think like business, and to become more strategic and innovative NPOs need to be more innovative in collating best practice in particular focus areas and sharing information This will help them to engage with corporates on the basis of thorough research RETURN TO TABLE                          18
Slide 19: SESSION‐ APPLICATIONS AND PARTNERSHIPS IN TECHNOLOGY  FOR DEVELOPMENT  Question 1. What are the ideal applications for the use of technology in healthcare? Outline these and describe the potential impact as well as difficulties that may be encountered in implementation. Delegate responses: Factors to consider • Assess demand and supply for technological applications and how they can be linked • The geographic area: rural, urban, district or local municipal area What can be done in rural versus urban contexts - database management is important in both • Types of technology Radio: different languages, huge reach Video conferencing for health workers, tertiary applications, also for teaching skills Cellphone: social media and SMSing. Internet Applications • Databases for therapy management • Rural areas and cellphones - creating awareness of doctor visitors, testing services, counselling, interaction and response • Tele-medicine Difficulties in implementation • Barriers such lack of education, language, electricity, cultural barriers, cost of technology and power, distances, and accessibility Question 2. What are the ideal applications for the use of technology in education? Outline these and describe the potential impact as well as difficulties that may be encountered in implementation. Delegate responses: Applications • Bulk SMSs for NGOs • TV programmes • Interactive boards • Educational games that can be updated continuously • Social media for education (e.g. Facebook, The Grid), including awareness of the legal aspects 19
Slide 20: • Grappling with costs – would this be used by a few schools, or would everybody be able to access these? Difficulties in implementation • Lack of understanding of technological innovations - how to use them, how to access them • Lack of resources and infrastructure – e.g. poor electricity reticulation in rural areas, lack of access to computers • Integration and interoperability of different versions and systems of the technologies used • Achieving economies of scale so that cost-effective technology serves the local community • Synergise mass media – cellphone is a discussion • Retaining the important element of human interaction • Technology can become a crutch for teachers • Equitable access to technology within the education system Question 3. What are the ideal applications for the use of technology in social security? Outline these and describe the potential impact as well as difficulties that may be encountered in implementation. This question was not addressed in the breakaway session. Question 4. Who are the long term / strategic partners that should be engaged (from Government, civil society etc.) when it comes to use of technology for development? What does each party bring to the partnership? What would the potential complications be in establishing such partnerships? Delegate responses: Long term/strategic partners • Mobile technology is ubiquitous – mobile and internet service providers are major partners to provide technology infrastructure services • Government as regulator and incentivisor, issuing licenses and providing rules for investing in developing areas • Community stakeholders themselves who must welcome technology providers and providing them with feedback • Local NGOs help each other to provide technology facilitations • Schools and universities involved in R&D Potential complications • Financing projects, as initial investment may not be profitable upfront • Uneven geographical coverage for different technologies 20
Slide 21: • • • Product design could be an issue – a product might not work in certain areas and for different people Affordability Competition wars between corporates in new markets Question 5. Where should the developmental expertise reside when such strategic partnerships are set up – with the company, the NGO partners or government. How can this expertise best be developed and applied? Delegate responses: • • This is hard to address in complex relationships Key stakeholders such as the people in communities often lack the technical expertise At the same time, convincing experts to go to certain locations is a challenge Utilising ICT to access information can develop expertise Another option is for companies to create and share databases e.g. NGOConnect Africa • • RETURN TO TABLE 21
Slide 22: SESSION ‐ INTERVENTIONS AND PARTNERSHIPS IN COMMUNITY  AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT  Question 1. How can CSI programmes add value to the work of government (and other developmental partners) in a rural community environment, without directly replacing the role and responsibility of government? Delegate responses: • Neither government nor the CSI sector can work alone Government needs to understand that it can also learn a lot Need to develop relationships of trust and communication • There must be an integrated approach aligning initiatives and identifying key areas of collaboration to determine priorities Information sharing on models of reporting, M&E and consultation are important • Passion comes from the NGOs, finance/resources/administration comes from the corporates, and policy direction, resources and funds from government Question 2. Is there an ideal focus area for CSI programmes in rural areas, given the scale of demand for developmental support and limited budgets? Delegate responses: • Ideal focus area for CSI programmes is ‘whatever they are doing’ • Holistic ideal would cover: Economic development, micro-enterprises and entrepreneurship; water supply; empowerment & education (skills, facilities, ECD, youth, sport); food security; health; OVC • Engage with community to identify their needs and key focus areas Has to be sustainable and in partnership with the community • Criteria that ideal focus areas should have: Should not perpetuate dependency Must be capable of sustainability Must be based on community partnership Must be based on consultations with other NGOs & CBOs Use the asset-based community development (ABCD) model Focus on maximum impact & measurement Adopt an holistic approach 22
Slide 23: Question 3. Should companies that are not located in the vicinity of rural communities still seek to contribute to rural programmes – or will their CSI funds be better spent on projects ‘closer to home’? Delegate responses: • If you are serious about poverty alleviation, you should go where the need is greatest, i.e. to the rural areas! • There should be a balance between rural and urban support. Reasons why this does not always happen: • Sometimes funding is determined by the location of a company’s employee or customer base • Some organisations (NGOs, CBOs) in certain rural areas may not be known to funders • Some companies’ CSI involves staff engagement, which is easiest in areas of company operation, not rural areas • Operational and logistic constraints inhibit rural spend, operations, monitoring and evaluation Question 4. What type of engagement is required with local government and community / traditional structures before investing in community programmes? Is this engagement essential for every CSI intervention? Delegate responses: Type of engagement • Engagement is vital to understand the culture of the particular rural community Introduce yourself and your intervention Scope the roles and emphasise that it is a community project, not a political project • Ongoing engagement • Mobilise around particular issues A community may not know what it does not know • Transfer skills and the asset base in the community • Change your concept of time Specific requirements with respect to local government: • Depends on the scale of intervention – for large interventions must engage with provincial government • Local government can be a useful information resource (IDP plans, etc) 23
Slide 24: Specific requirements with respect to tribal authorities: • Approach tribal structures first • Have a single point of contact (i.e. the chief) Is this engagement essential for every CSI intervention? • Absolutely, even if just from a point of courtesy Question 5. Given the multiplicity of inputs and conditions on which successful development hinges, how does one assess the impact of CSI interventions in rural development? Delegate responses: • A baseline study is the first step to determine the deliverables, which can only happen if the community is involved • Donors need to ensure that beneficiaries are capacitated • Stakeholders in the community should have their own M&E tools • Through quantitative data - qualitative outputs, although just as important are more difficult to measure • Mindset change necessary in terms of NGOs being more serious about taking account of M&E in their budgeting (make M&E a real line item in the NGO budget) RETURN TO TABLE 24

   
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