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User Interview Techniques 

 

 
 
Tags:  steve jobs  methodology  qualitative research  research  usabilidad  user interviews  ux usbilidade entrevistas  ux  uxlondon  user interview  interview 
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Published:  November 30, 2011
 
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Slide 1: User Interview Techniques The Art of the Question UX London Liz Danzico
Slide 2: “Everyone has a story.
Slide 3: “Everyone has a story. When people are talking about something they know well and do well, they’re almost always interesting. And if they’re not, it’s generally your fault because you’re not asking the right questions and you haven’t made them comfortable. And once I learned that lesson, my journalism became a lot easier.” —MALCOLM GLADWELL, C-SPAN 2009
Slide 4: The Tonight Show 1987
Slide 5: TODAY An Overview Part 1. The Elements of Interview Style Part II. The Basics of Interview Construction Part III. At the Interview, and a Bit on Debriefs Part IV. A Checklist Interviews & Samples
Slide 6: Interviewing Plan Research Synthesize Design Develop
Slide 7: What is it? • A type of qualitative research • Combination of observation and one-on-one interviewing • Ethnographic interviewing method used to gain insights about people
Slide 8: What isn’t it? (FORMAL) USABILITY Primary purpose A list of the problems with product/service When a product is in progress INTERVIEWS Insights on opinions about things or experience using things At any time, but most often prior When do you interview? Who do you interview? Representative users Rented facilities, conference rooms Clients and stakeholders Representative users Homes, offices, places where users hang out Live, only research team; Video; all Where do you interview? Who watches? Who identifies the insights? Person analyzing usability report Person conducting the interview
Slide 9: • Interviewing people in context • Designers need to understand Fabricant allows interviewers to question in real time patterns of behavior a product must address • “Behavior is our medium” —Robert
Slide 10: “Often real life is boring and problematic. I love the edited version of it. —TERRY GROSS
Slide 11: Am I qualified? • 10,000 usability professionals worldwide • “Amateurs” —Steve Krug • Amateurs will do a bad job* • Amateurs will do a good job* • “Everybody” —Jakob Nielsen • “Professional, if you have the budget” —me * Steve Krug, Rocket Surgery Made Easy
Slide 12: PART I. The Elements of Interview Style • • • • • Questions Silence Interruptions Etiquette Body language
Slide 13: Closed questions P1: “So do you cook?” P2: “Yes, yeah.” P1: “And, ah, how often do you cook?” P2: “Maybe three times a week?” Audio sample
Slide 14: Ask good questions • Questions should not lead to a dead end • Ask open-ended, not closed questions • Questions that cannot be answered with yes or no; short dead-end answers • Curb the conjunctions • Kill the trailing ellipsis Audio sample
Slide 15: P1: “When you're cooking, do you like to use fresh ingredients, do you use the microwave a lot, or do you sort of do things in the oven or, um, what kind of different things do you ... cook ...” P2: “Ah, um. Yeah. I don't really use the microwave because I don't have one. ... But if you would have asked if I use the steamer, I do use the steamer every once in a while.”
Slide 16: Closed question(s) P1: “When you're cooking, do you like to use fresh ingredients, or do you use the microwave a lot, or do you sort of do things in the oven or, um, what kind of different things do you ... cook ...” P2: “Ah, um. Yeah. I don't really use the microwave because I don't have one. ... But if you would have asked if I use the steamer, I do use the steamer every once in a while.”
Slide 17: Conjunction issues P1: “When you're cooking, do you like to use fresh ingredients, or do you use the microwave a lot, or do you sort of do things in the oven or, um, what kind of different things do you ... cook ...” P2: “Ah, um. Yeah. I don't really use the microwave because I don't have one. ... But if you would have asked if I use the steamer, I do use the steamer every once in a while.”
Slide 18: Question trails off into ellipsis P1: “When you're cooking, do you like to use fresh ingredients, or do you use the microwave a lot, or do you sort of do things in the oven or, um, what kind of different things do you ... cook ...” P2: “Ah, um. Yeah. I don't really use the microwave because I don't have one. ... But if you would have asked if I use the steamer, I do use the steamer every once in a while.”
Slide 19: P1: “So I've got a few different recipes here. Would you say this recipe is nicer than this one?” P2: “Well. .... Yeah. Probably. Yeah.” Audio sample
Slide 20: Leading questions P1: “So I've got a few different recipes here. Would you say this recipe is nicer than this one?” P2: “Well. .... Yeah. Probably. Yeah.”
Slide 21: Question types Tasks Participation Demonstration Role-playing Sequence Specific example Can you show me how you would make a birthday cake? Can you show me how I should make a birthday cake? Show us how to make a birthday cake. I’ll be the customer and you be the baker; show me how they should respond. Walk me through a typical day. What did you make for the last birthday party? SOURCE: Deep Dive Interviewing Secrets: Making Sure You Don't Leave Key Information Behind, Jan 2010
Slide 22: Question types Peer Comparison Project Ahead Look Back Quantity Exhaustive List Other Viewpoint Comparison Do the other bakers do it that way? What do you think it will be like in 5 years? How are things different than they were last year? How many bakers are like that? What are all the things you use when you make a cake? What’s your bosses’ opinion on the same topic? SOURCE: Deep Dive Interviewing Secrets: Making Sure You Don't Leave Key Information Behind, Jan 2010
Slide 23: “And then to, uh, Bombay.” Edison with his phonograph, 1877 Bob Garfield, On The Media, 2007
Slide 24: Let there be silence • We make a misktake in speech once every 4.4 seconds; 1 out of every 10 words is a mistake pauses (uhs, ahs) • 40% of the time, we use verbal • Don’t rush to ask the next question • “Let people speak in paragraphs” —Steve Portigal
Slide 25: Avoid interruptions • Acknowledgements can actually be interruptions • Confirmations can lead participants • When editing, “ums” and “ahs” become difficult Audio sample
Slide 26: Remember etiquette • Find the right amount of small talk • You’re there to gain information, not establish friendships • Avoid talking about yourself, even when you want to join the conversation!
Slide 27: “Listen” to signals CLOSED Uncertain about each other OPEN Openness and acceptance SOURCE: The Book of Body Language, http://westsidetoastmasters.com/resources/book_of_body_language/
Slide 28: CLOSED A boss would perceive a subordinate's mirroring behavior as arrogance OPEN Mirroring the other person's body language to gain acceptance CLOSED Time to leave: the new person is not accepted by the others OPEN Open triangular position encouraging the entry of a third person
Slide 29: HSLU Service Design Workshop flickr @apolaine
Slide 30: Triage IF THIS THEN SAY THIS The interviewee makes a comment, and you’re not sure when he or she means. The interviewee is concerned he or she is not being helpful. The interviewee asks you to explain how something works. The interviewee has gotten entirely off question. “Was there something that make you think that?” “You’re giving us exactly what we need!” “How do you think it works?” “Let’s change gears a bit.”
Slide 31: REVIEW PART I. The Elements of Interview Style • • • • • Trust the question Let there be silence Acknowledgements can be interruptions Don’t forget your social graces Listen to signals
Slide 32: PART II. The Basics of Interview Construction • Who • Where • What • How
Slide 33: “Unglamorous!” —JAKOB NIELSEN
Slide 34: Representatives of target audience or actual audience? 2/day rule, schedule in the morning
Slide 35: Create screener • Demographics: Age, gender, household income 1. We’re looking for people who are between the ages of 21 and 39. Would that be you? Yes No [] [ ] END • Status: Employment, • Probes: Preferences, ratings research work, marital Refused [ ] END 2. What is your age? Under 21 [ ] END Between 21-34 [ ] Between 35-39 [ ] HOLD Over 40 [ ] END • Logistics (have ready) • Test
Slide 36: Whither recruiting? • Recruiter or do it yourself? • Where do they congregate? • Can you put a link on a homepage or other site? interviews? • Can you conduct remote
Slide 37: Email (FAFN) Craigslist (General) Recruiting firm (Specialized) Lowest cost; mid-range selective High cost time; least selective Highest cost; most selective Website (Specialized) Email list (Specialized) Low cost; self-selective Low cost; mid-range selective
Slide 38: Recruiting fees • Recruitment: $100-250 US/head +/10% • Incentives:  Average $175 US/headmiddle management titles+
Slide 39: Incentives • How much can you afford to give? • Gift certificates • Food • Donations to charity • In-kind gifts, merchandise, your product!
Slide 41: Screener results
Slide 42: What is your interview style? • Topics • Freestyle (“improv”) • List of questions
Slide 43: 1 min 5 minute madness “If you had 5 minutes with a user of your product or service, what would you ask?” Item Item Item Item Item
Slide 44: Topic list • Comfort with mobile devices • Time spent at gym • Diet habits/vices • Routines with friends Gary Hustwit, film director Helvetica, Objectified
Slide 45: Freestyle • Conduct a “Listening Lab” approach ala Mark Hurst • Build each interview question on the one before; no pre-defined script, but controlled by context SOURCE: www.goodexperience.com/2004/12/tips-on-moderating-listening-l.php
Slide 46: Field guide • What do you want in the field? • What photos would you like? • Are there stage directions you need to follow? • Put this in a field guide.
Slide 47: Field guide
Slide 48: Field guide
Slide 49: Memoing Record one idea and timestamp on each Post-It Timestamp Individual insight Individual insight Individual insight Timestamp Individual insight Timestamp SOURCE: www.adaptivepath.com/ideas/essays/archives/000839.php
Slide 50: Other tips • Prepare your introduction; practice it • Prepare and/or bring consent forms: online/print • Consider recording permissions • Notetaking, Memoing • Prepare post-test questionnaires • Give them a pen!
Slide 51: Introduction/Setup Participant Name: ________________________________________ Date of interview: _________________________________________ If testing product/service, keep it out of sight until permission is granted. Hi, _______________. My name is _______________, and I’m going to be asking you some questions today. Before we get started, there are a few things to review. We’re asking people to answer questions regarding _____________ to inform some of the work the team will be doing. We’re here to ask questions about you; that’s why we chose you. You may be tempted to answer questions based on what your friends or family do. But we’re really interested in your opinions and experiences. Therefore, there’s nothing you can say that is wrong. All answers are welcome, and will help us consider our work! If you have other answers or thoughts as we move along, please feel free to express them. We may not be able to spend much time on them, but we will try to hear as much of what you have to say as possible. You see I have some colleagues here with me. They’re interested in what you have to say as well, so they’ll be taking notes and observing. But they may not be joining the conversation. To that end, you’ll see there is a video camera here. With your permission we’d like to record the session for research purposes only. Your feedback will be kept anonymous—only used by the research team—unless you give approval otherwise. If you don’t have any questions, I’m going to ask if ou sign the permission form. Take your time reviewing it. Give the person a pen along with the consent form. OK. Do you have any questions? User Interview Techniques UX London ID #: _______________ Memorize this; practice! SAMP
Slide 52: Obtain digital signatures
Slide 53: Notetaking types Descriptive: See something; write it down Inferential: Use inference to describe observation (e.g., “she was frustrated with XX”) Evaluative: Makes a judgment from inference and behavior (e.g., “humans do not have a positive relationship with XX”)
Slide 54: REVEIW PART II. The Basics of Interview Construction • Who do you want to talk with? • How many should you talk with? • Where do you look for them? • How do you compensate them?
Slide 55: PART III. At the Interview, and a Bit on Debriefs • • • • Greetings Neutrality Tag-teaming Endings
Slide 56: Greetings • Arrive earlier than you think you should. • Turn off your phone. • Do not bring coffee. • Be on the lookout for the smallest details.
Slide 57: A wrong foot • People are not who you thought they’d be • You’re allergic to their cat/dog/bird • You’re caught in the middle of a dispute • Don’t be afaid to call off interview and leave
Slide 58: Stay neutral • Your job is much like a therapist • Avoid making the person a designer • Even if you think it, don’t say, “me too!” • You can’t: • Tell people the right answers to questions • Express your own opinions • Give up your poker face
Slide 59: Colleagues • Seeing is believing, yet try to keep the numbers small. 1-3 people is ideal. video format recording • Record all interviews in audio or • Ensure you get proper consent for
Slide 60: Tag-teaming • Assign each person to: • Ask questions only • Observe only • Note-take only • If a fourth person: • Listen only
Slide 61: It’s not over when it’s over • Team up after each interview to recap what you saw and heard • Don’t lose first-impression insights before moving on to next interview
Slide 62: After each interview, list three memorable insights you heard. Discuss before moving to next one, or with the rest of your day even if recording. Participant Name: ____________________ Date of interview: ____________________ Most memorable: 1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Slide 63: Follow up • Follow up immediately with lightweight feedback: email, Word document, phone • Transcribe notes immediately • Chromolume Transcription: • CastingWords Audio, Video: http://www.crtranscription.com/ ($1.50-2.50 US/min, timestamps free!) http://castingwords.com/ ($0.75-$2.50 US/min, timestamps $0.10/ min)
Slide 64: Post-interview Insights Participant Name: ________________________________________ Date of interview: _________________________________________ Most memorable: User Interview Techniques UX London 2010 ID #: _______________ 1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Participant Name: ________________________________________ Date of interview: _________________________________________ Most memorable: 1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ID #: _______________ Participant Name: ________________________________________ Date of interview: _________________________________________ Most memorable: ID #: _______________ 1. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ SAMPLE
Slide 65: Introduction/Setup Participant Name: ________________________________________ Date of interview: _________________________________________ If testing product/service, keep it out of sight until permission is granted. Hi, _______________. My name is _______________, and I’m going to be asking you some questions today. Before we get started, there are a few things to review. We’re asking people to answer questions regarding _____________ to inform some of the work the team will be doing. We’re here to ask questions about you, that’s why we chose you. You may be tempted to answer questions based on what your friends or family do. But we’re really interested in your opinions and experiences. Therefore, there’s nothing you can say that is wrong. All answers are welcome, and will help us consider our work. If you have other answers or thoughts as we move along, please feel free to express them. We may not be able to spend much time on them, but we will try to hear as much of what you have to say as possible. You see I have some colleagues here with me. They’re interested in what you have to say as well, so they’ll be taking notes and observing. But they may not be joining the conversation. To that end, you’ll see there is a video camera here. With your permission we’d like to record the session for research purposes only. Your feedback will be kept anonymous—only used by the research team—unless you give approval otherwise. If you don’t have any questions, I’m going to ask if ou sign the permission form. Take your time reviewing it. Give the person a pen along with the consent form. OK. Do you have any questions? User Interview Techniques UX London 2010 ID #: _______________ SAMPLE
Slide 66: Field Guide Study Name: ________________________________________ Include questions as well as stage directions. User Interview Techniques UX London 2010 ID #: _______________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Question: ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ SAMPLE
Slide 67: PART IV. The Checklist
Slide 68: Checklist Three to four weeks before Figure out what you’re going to be asking Figure out who you want to visit in the field Develop your screener Test the screener (with one another) Announce need for participants Consider right interview style
Slide 69: Checklist Two weeks before Discuss what you expect in field with team Talk about what you want in field (photos, answers, etc.) Screen participants and schedule them (leave time for lunch!) Confirm with participants via email Prepare consent forms, NDAs
Slide 70: Checklist One week before Print directions to all locations Confirm with participants (date, time, any relevant numbers) via email Confirm incentives Check all technology and devices
Slide 71: Checklist One day before Do a dry run of the questions Print directions to all locations Print out copies of consent forms Pack incentives Pack all technology and devices
Slide 72: Checklist That day Prepare to have forgotten something on the checklist
Slide 73: REVIEW An Overview Part 1. The Elements of Interview Style Part II. The Basics of Interview Construction Part III. At the Interview, and a Bit on Debriefs Part IV. A Checklist Interviews & Samples dis.bobulate.com/etc/interviewing
Slide 74: Contextual Design, Karen Holtzblatt Mental Models, Indi Young Rocket Surgery Made Easy, Steve Krug Observing the User Experience, Mike Kuniavsky
Slide 75: Thanks to sources Andy & Karin Polaine, who recorded all interview questions: http://www.polaine.com/ Myrtle Young, The Tonight Show: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EY3Lw_-bj5U Deep Dive Interviewing Secrets: Making Sure You Don't Leave Key Information Behind, Steve Portigal http://www.uie.com/events/virtual_seminars/questions/ Q&A with Malcolm Gladwell http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/290341-1
Slide 76: Thanks! dis.bobulate.com/uxl/interviewing-handout.pdf @bobulate
Slide 78: Wrap-up

   
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